To What Extent Did the Revolutions of 1848-9 Fail in Italy Due to Poor Leadership?

1071 WordsNov 5, 20115 Pages
The failures of 1848-9 could be blamed on the poor leadership of Individuals such as Charles Albert and Mazzini. However there are other contributing factors that should be taken into account. Although Charles Albert seems to be successful in uniting the states of Italy to strengthen his campaign, for example, by joining Lombardy and Venetia with Piedmont and merging their armies into one in 1848, and aiding the rebels in Lombardy, his poor leadership effected the outcome of the 1848-9 Revolutions. Albert was uncomfortable with non-Piedmontese revolutionaries and made them swear an oath of loyalty to Piedmont, nor would he accept volunteers from other states in his army. This lack of unity hindered his chances of success. After Lombardy…show more content…
However poor leadership was not the only aspect holding the revolutionaries back. A lack of unity was preventing the states of Italy from making any significant progress. The failure of Revolutions in Naples and Sicily, for example, were due to the fact that the revolutionaries in Naples split into moderates and radicals. These two groups, even though they both wanted to expel the foreign occupying country - Austria, were divided in their aims. Whilst the liberals believed that a constitution was necessary, the Radicals favoured republics. Their inability to work together and their separate aims resulted in Failure. In Piedmont, Charles Albert would not accept volunteers from other states in his army, or work with any other revolutionary groups, unless they declared their loyalty to Piedmont. A lack of unity further led to a lack of central guidance. There was no universally acceptable national leader who could co-ordinate policy, Pope Pius IX had declined the position of Head of Italy, and neither Mazzini or Charles Albert were acceptable for everyone. ~Local revolutionary leaders had no central guidance to rule by and the separate states were all divided, setting up provisional governments of their own chosen methods; extremist, liberal, radical, democratic or monarchist. Not only were the revolutionary movements lacking in guidance from 1848-9, they were inexperienced

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