Toddlers Language Development

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As soon as infants are born they immediately begin innately paying attention to language. There are several major achievements in language as infants grow and develop. First in phonology, infants begin babbling using vowel-like sounds at 3-8 months, early consonants at 5-8 months, and CV syllables from 5-10 months. CV syllables means syllables with a consonant and a vowel, and are more complex for infants to produce. They also acquire prosodic abilities, or the ability to find patterns of intonations and stress in language. An infant proves unable to produce multiword utterances and therefore contains no syntax, but they begin to formulate single words beginning around 9-14 months of age. To count as first words, they must be “true words”, …show more content…

Toddlers’ phonological processes change as they develop their motor skills, and these are responsible for the “funny mistakes” they make when trying to communicate. Toddlers grasp language by making their speech simpler and easier to produce through syllable structure changes such as: reduplicated syllables, final consonant deletion, and weak syllable deletion. Also, reduction of consonant cluster, assimilation, and changing the place and manner of articulation affect their learning of language as toddlers. These changes can range from the replacing of a velar sound such as “k” to a bilabial sound such as “b” to turning words such as “playing” to “paying” and so on. Toddlers also comprehend and utilize morphemes, specifically grammatical morphemes, around 18 to 24 months or after their first fifty words. Roger Brown created a formulaic sequence of acquisition of these morphemes, beginning with “-ing” as early as 19-28 months and continuing with the plural “s” at 27-30 months. Toddlers achieve syntax around two years at the “two-word stage” where they produce telegraphic word combinations that often lack grammatical markers and misuse pronouns. While they are learning syntax, they also develop a large receptive and expressive lexicon that is organized into a semantic network in their brain. Toddlerhood is known for large word additions in their lexicons, and the vocabulary spurt begins at around fifty words at 12-18 months, where they start to learn 7-9 words/day between 18 and 24 months. By five years, these children have acquired roughly 2,100 to 2,200 words. However, many times children have semantic mapping errors, such as overextension, under-extension, and overlap, but these are usually corrected as they grow. Finally, the social-pragmatic framework shows that toddlers learn through interactions with others, and by twelve

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