Two types of health maintenance organization plans that are readily available are the Staff Model HMO and Group Model HMO, and these plans are often called closed-panel plans (Kongstvedt, 2016, p. 63). These HMO plans are considered closed because either the HMO employs the physician, or the physician belongs to the HMO group, thus creating a smaller network for the patient to be seen (Farnham, n.d., Chapter 3). Each HMO plan has its benefits and disadvantages for the physician and patient. Consequently, depending on what the patient needs to meet their medical needs the Staff Model HMO plan or Group Model HMO plan would benefit them. Furthermore, depending on the particular type of freedom the physician is looking for is what would influence the type of plan they would join.
During a Staff Model HMO the physician is employed by HMO network, thus they are salaried employees. Therefore, the physician is paid whether he sees an HMO patient or not. On the other hand, the physician could be very busy and still get the same salary. Sometimes the HMO offers incentives for quality control, so that the physician does not use expensive medical testing (Kongstvedt, 2016, p. 65). Besides the HMO paying the salary of the physicians, the HMO actually owns the medical facilities, equipment, and supplies used by the HMO physician and in some cases the hospital. Hence, the physician employed by the HMO could be financially beneficial to them. Additionally, because of the size of the
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HMO- Is the most popular of the plans and is a group of providers that provides services to subscribers with a very small or even co copay when services are rendered. There actually are various types of HMO's that link providers to create a healthcare delivery system, they are Group Model HMO, Individual Practice Association HMO, Network Model HMO, Staff Model HMO, and Open Access HMO.
The types of managed care are differentiated by definition, operation, structure, and information needs. `HMOs were the most common type of MCO until commercial insurance companies developed PPOs to compete with HMOs' (Douglas, 2003, p.331). `HMOs are business entities that either arrange for or provide health services to an enrolled population after prepayment of a fixed sum of money, called a premium' (Peden, 1998, p.78). There are three characteristics that an HMO must have. The first is a health care financing and delivery system that provides services for members in a particular geographic area. Second, is ensured access to a complete range of health care services, health maintenance, treatment, and routine checkups. Last, health care must be obtained from voluntary personnel that participate in the HMO. The five HMO models related to the participating physicians are the Staff
The HMO’s stress wellness and preventive care, therefore its focus is more on health maintenance rather than just the treatment itself. Because of this, HMO’s offer much richer benefits than the traditional plans. HMO’s have little to no upfront costs in an effort to encourage maintenance, while comprehensive and major medical plans have up-front cost sharing so as to discourage over utilization.
HMOs are usually the least expensive health plans, offer predictable costs for health care, the least administrative paperwork, and cover preventive care (Barsukiewicz, Raffel, & Raffel, 2010). However, HMOs also restrict direct access to specialists by requiring referrals by a PCP, requiring patients to see a provider in the HMO network, and often not covering more costly procedures or care options, because care is managed to control excessive or unnecessary care. Providers gain if they provide less care (Austin & Wetle, 2012). This incentive could affect patient-provider trust.
New physicians would be able to focus more on the quality of their practice as opposed to productivity due to being paid on a salary-basis in a large organization that is better-equipped to train incoming physicians. Staff Model HMOs provide care in extensive health systems; therefore, there are abundant resources available to physicians, both physical resources and the resource of additional physicians’ minds and expertise.
New England Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) is a regional not for profit managed care company that has its headquarters in Boston, MA, with over 500,000 enrollees within 25 different plans including Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. A consortium of employers has shown interest in bidding on a managed care contract to be offered to the consortium’s 75,000 employees whom are locate in and around Nashua, New Hampshire. The consortium of employers includes companies such as IBM, Ford, and Prudential Insurance.
Throughout the last half of the 20th century, employers have acted on their own to regulate health costs by requiring employees to join health maintenance organizations (HMOs). More than 100 million Americans are under managed care. However, many patients and doctors complain that HMOs impose too many regulations and sacrifice healthcare quality. HMOs are undergoing a high level of scrutiny due to criticisms that the network is controlling and jeopardizing the healthcare system of the nation.
Under the HMO, each patient is appointed to a primary care physician (PCP), who is essentially accountable for the long-term care of the members that she/he has been assigned and any specialists that a patient needs to see should be referred by their PCP. Some examples of HMOs are Kaiser Permanente and Humana. HMOs have been licensed at the state level, under a license that is known as a certificate of authority. A pro of an HMO is that treatment for a patient can begin prior to their insurance being authorized; A member may benefit from this because there would be little to no treatment delays. A con of an HMO is that in order to save cost, most HMOs provide narrow provider networks; A member may not benefit if in an emergency because their “in-network” emergency room might be far or there are “quick-care” in their area.
An HMO provides comprehensive health-care services to the insured for a fixed periodic payment. There may also be a nominal fee paid for each visit to a health-care provider. Unlike traditional insurance, HMOs actually provide the health care rather than just making payments to health-care providers. HMOs can have a variety of relationships with hospitals and physicians. Plan physicians may be salaried employees, members of an independent multi-specialty group, of a network of independent multi-specialty groups, or part of an individual practice association.
Today, there are several types of managed care plans including Preferred Provider Organizations (PPOs), HMOs, and Point-of-Service (POS) plans. There are many types of HMOs that offer members a variety of health benefits. An HMO plan requires the member to use health care providers and facilities within the HMO network in order receive coverage, unless it is an emergency (Andrews, 2014, p. 1). A PPO is a form of managed care that most resembles a fee-for-service type situation. The plan members can generally refer themselves to doctors, including doctors outside the plan, although they typically will pay a higher percentage of the cost if the doctor is out of the network (Andrews, 2014, p. 1). A POS plan allows members to refer themselves outside the HMO network and still get some coverage (Andrews, 2014, p. 1). While these
Insurance is separated into categories called Major Medical Plans, Qualified Health Plans, and Catastrophic Plans. Major medical plans consist of Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) plans: HMOs are one of the most popular types of health insurance you can purchase. With this plan, an entire network of health care providers agrees to offer you its services. You have to select a primary care provider (PCP) who coordinates all of your health services and care (Ehealth, 2014), Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) plans: Under a PPO plan, both you and your family can see any health care provider in their network, including specialists, without a referral. In most cases, you don’t have to
(POS). There are over half of Americans with health insurance are enrolled in managed care
The relationship of an HMO and its physician member is to help provide a wider range health care for its patients and a wide area of services available for its physician members. A patient must choose a primary care physician from a list of providers. The relationship with the physician provided from the HMO is in a contract that is to deliver services to their patients for a fee. There can also be a group plan which is a HMOs contract with a group of physicians to deliver services. The HMO organization compared to PPOs, a PPO is a variation of an HMO, and it features traditional insurance and managed care.
The United States being referred for specialties depends on the insurance plan (Mossialos, Wenzel, Osborn, Sarnak, 2016, pp. 171-177). Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) plans give access to certain healthcare organizations and physician within their network that have agreed to lower rates for their services. The individual must agree to these services to have services covered. All services will be coordinated by the primary care physician PCP. Medicaid coverage is also based on these principles. Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) plan have higher premiums but give more flexibility. PPO allows the individual to see any physician they choose but cost is less if the individual stays within the network. PPO does not require that the individual have a PCP. No referrals for specialist are needed.
Managed Care from a consumer’s perspective is more affordable, there is no deductible and there is also no obligation to pay a percentage of the medical bill. Therefore the difference between the two, Traditional and Managed is simply financial. From a physician’s stand of point traditional insurance (fee-for-service), the consumer or patient pays the physician directly unless the patient has exceeded their deductible from their insurance, in which case the patient would pay a portion of the bill, and the remaining balance is reimbursed from the insurance to the physician. Being a physician who participates in Managed Care accepting various medical insurance like HMO, PPO the physician is provided with several amenities which include an office and administrated support, salary, better working hours. With PPO some of the amenities may include treating patients outside the plan, stable patient load, and independence to run office.