Understanding Volcanoes and their Types Essay

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Understanding volcanoes require our understanding of planet Earth’s structure. Earth is a ball of rocks divided into four layers; crust, mantle, outer core and inner core. The Crust is the outermost layer. It comprised of continental and oceanic crust. The second layer is the mantle and it makes up about 80% of the Earth’s total volume. The outer core is liquid consisting of iron and nickel and it is the third layer. The Forth layer, inner core is the solid iron and nickel alloy. The temperature and density of these layers differs. Inner core has the highest temperature and density with the crust having the lowest temperature and density in comparison. The extreme pressure and temperature within the earth causes the hot magma (also known as lava when it is erupted to the surface) to rise and leak into the crust. The molten rocks are driven out from mantle upwards through crust to the surface which form volcanoes (Johnson 2009; Wikipedia, Mantle geology). Volcanoes are openings in the surface through which molten rocks (magma), gases and pyroclastic debris erupt from the Earth’s crust to the surface of the Earth (Bagley, 2013). Volcanoes are development of landforms with positive topographies (composite), but can be depression (calderas) or lack definite topography (fissure) (Grosse, Euillades & de Vries, 2014). Volcanoes form at converge boundaries, diverge boundaries and hot spots but not at transform plate boundaries. Volcanoes can differ in size and shape due to magma…

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