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WWII Allied Forces Looked to Win the War with Operation Market Garden

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Introduction

17 September 1944, Allied forces looking for a means to win the war by the end of the year, launched the biggest air and ground offensive in the history of warfare.1 Allied commanders had to find a way to break through the Siegfried Line. The Siegfried Line was the western defensive line into Germany extending north from the border of Switzerland to the Ruhr area of Germany. Instead of trying to break through the line, they decided to move north through Holland.
21st Army Group included 1st Allied Airborne Army and 2nd British Army. 1st Allied Airborne Army consisting of 82nd Airborne Division, 101st Airborne Division, British 1st Airborne Division, and 1st Polish Independent Parachute Brigade would be responsible
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Eisenhower to present his plan. Although this plan met resistance among several other Allied commanders, Eisenhower approved the mission. The first planning meeting took place that same evening for Operation Market.

Planning/Preparation

Due to the shortened timeline, the Allies had to act fast if they were going to capitalize on the momentum gained thus far. From conception to initiation, planning time for Operation Market Garden was one week. Compared to the months spent planning the airborne invasion of Normandy, Operation Market Garden’s short planning timeline raised doubt and concern among all participants. Most of which, were concerns over the sheer size of the operation and the fact that it was created with such a short planning cycle. Another major concern was due to a lack of night illumination, the airborne drop would be made during the day deep behind enemy lines. As well as, overall mission success would depend greatly on favorable weather. An uncontrollable factor with a immense impact on the mission.

Deployment

This operation consisted of two separate missions. Operation Market, the airborne assault targeted key bridges and terrain in the vicinity of four cities. The 101st would be responsible for securing approximately fifteen miles of the corridor, including the city of Eindhoven and bridges at Zon, St. Oedenrode, and Veghel. The 82d Airborne Division was to drop in the middle to
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