What Are The Arguments For Dualism

Decent Essays
PHIL205: Take-Home Midterm
Sarah Muench

Question 1:

Berkeley’s arguments for idealism dismiss the mind-body problem by introducing immaterialism in which only the mind exists. Berkeley suggests that everything in reality is experienced internally via perception; therefore, everything we experience must be a product of the mind. According to Berkeley, to exist is to be perceived. If an object is experienced via the senses and anything perceived by the senses is an idea within the mind, then an object must be an idea within the mind. From this, the only things that exist with certainty are the perceptions/ideas and their perceivers. Because perceptions exist in the mind, the existence of a perception is dependent on the mind. Minds are the source of perceptions but are passive in what they perceive via the senses therefore do not have control over what is being perceived. Because only a mind can be the source of an idea and we do not have control over the objects we perceive via our senses, then we must perceive the ideas of
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When the brain undergoes physical damage, the mental capabilities within that brain are negatively affected. If mind and matter are completely separate, the damaged material brain should not compromise the immaterial substances of the mind. Furthermore, if the mind is said to perceive matter but the mind is distinct from matter then it actually just perceives an internal mental image of the external matter. Because perception of matter is just a representation of the matter within the mind Descartes fails to explain the process how the two distinct substances actually interact. The complete distinction between mind and matter makes it impossible to relate the two realities without some sort of intervening supernatural power. This intervening extra force leaves dualism with the fallacy of false alternatives, as it can be neither mind nor
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