What Are The Diagnostic Value Of The Dre?

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Perseus, a 50-year-old man, attended his GP reporting a 4-month history of difficulty in starting to urinate and a poor urinary stream. His GP performed a DRE, which revealed masses in both lobes of the prostate (clinical stage T2C) His GP took a serum sample for PSA and referred him to a urologist. PART A Question 1: Comment on the patient’s presenting symptoms. The patient’s symptoms indicate signs of advanced prostate cancer, “prostate cancer seldom produces signs and symptoms until it is advanced. Signs of advanced disease include a slow urinary stream…urinary hesitancy, incomplete bladder emptying…These symptoms are due to the obstruction caused by tumour progression.” Scott, W, pp421 (2011). The developmental stages of the cancer provide an understanding of the symptoms presented “T2b are diffuse, larger, or present in both lobes” Hamilton, W. (2004) Question 2: What is the diagnostic value of the DRE? A digital rectal examination is used to determine the prostate location, size and presence of nodules. The test proves useful as an initial test however due to the low sensitivity of the test a definitive conclusion cannot be made solely from the test result, therefore the test can be used as the basis for further examinations for example ultrasonography or blood tests. Hoogendam. A. (1999) Question 3: Explain the term clinical stage, and T2C in this case. Clinical stage defines the stage and size of neoplasm development; this is used to diagnose and decide on the

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