France had seventy-three newspapers and Napoleon shut down sixty of them. He made all of the manuscript be subjected to government scrutiny before being published or releases.
His downfall stared in 1812 when he tried to invade Russia. There were 600,000 men of his Grand Army went into Russia. The Russia did not battle them, they destroyed their own villages to keep Napoleon army from finding food. It was only 40,000 men that came back to Poland. This military state held other European states to do better and attack the French army.
Napoleon died on May 5, 1821, they are not sure exactly what caused his death.
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During the Napoleonic Era, from 1799 to 1815, France became a military power gaining and controlling land throughout Europe. While some historians believe Napoleon Bonaparte was a ruthless dictator, his military accomplishments far outweigh any atrocities he committed. He helped France gain stability after the French Revolution and he also abolished the Feudal contract. Napoleon was a brilliant strategist using military tactics to cause fear and to defeat whatever enemies stood in his way. Throughout his rule, Napoleon continually gained ground, and by the end of his reign, his empire encompassed all of Spain, Italy, and a small portion of land by Russia and Austria. (see map) He is one of
During his reign he strived to reestablish French aristocracy, which was eliminated in the French revolution. He began this by putting his family and loyal friends into power giving those titles of the nobility. His power continued to expand across much of western and central continental Europe. It wasn’t until Russia left the continental system that the French would engage in a full scale battle. This battle lead to the downfall of Napoleon rule. With the invasion of Moscow, his army suffered heavy casualties which would then be considered the Battle of Borodino. Russians set fire to the city, forcing Napoleons army to starve, due to harsh weather freeze, and die off. This action became the defeat and end of the Napoleonic Wars.
Impressed by his feats the five main military leaders asked Napoleon to invade England, instead he offered a plan to invade Egypt. After he got the okay to do so Napoleon took over the Egyptian army and its main leaders (www.history.com, www.thefreesource.com). In 1799 Napoleon overthrew the French Directory in an attempt to gain more power. After the defeat he was the leading political figure to most historians (www.history.com). As leader Napoleon improved not only the military of France but also the economy and other parts of the French empire. He helped reform the banks and education system as well as improving the arts and sciences. But his biggest contribution was the Napoleonic code, which was a big part of the legal system in France.(www.history.com, www.thefreesource.com, www.bbc.co.uk). In 1804 Napoleon declared himself emperor of France, which was meant he was the sole leader of this great empire (www.history.com). Napoleon won many battles and his reign stretched from the edge of the border of Spain to Italy and also some parts in Austria and Egypt. It was a strong and powerful empire at the time. The start of Napoleon’s downfall began when Russia broke agreements with France. So Napoleon brought about 600,000 troops into Russia to attack but the Russians were prepared and had the perfect strategy to defeat the French army. The Russians would retreat and keep the French marching
Few humans have ever come as close to ruling over the entirety of Europe as Napoleon Bonaparte did. As the end of the French Revolution drew near, Napoleon Bonaparte did not hesitate long to create policies that kept him in power. With such power, it was certain that Napoleon would use it to influence to people all over Europe. Napoleon’s impact on the people of France and Europe, who he affected through propaganda, his ideas of nationalism and patriotism, and a codification of laws, was a very long-standing and resilient ideology that was mostly prevalent during the French Revolution.
Napoleon 's foreign policy would turn out to be his ultimate downfall and the biggest red mark next to his name. His foreign policy was designed to subdue Europe by military conquest, rather than diplomacy. In short, he wanted to rule the world or as much of it as possible. They fought with Napoleon in what would be known as the Napoleonic wars, but Napoleon won several battles, such as the
10) Code Napoleon= it was the revision and organization of french law which was spread through the rest of Europe. It made the bank of France, made agreement with pope, more efficient tax collection, made better public education.
Napoleon won battles in Italy and Austria early in his rule, but eventually, the French Emperor attempted to conquer other major powers in Europe. Napoleon lost major battles in Russia and Britain, and the French people’s perception of their king began to change. Document 5 shows a painting of Napoleon in 1812, during the French invasion of Russia. Napoleon is depicted very negatively: he appears to be short, almost small, overweight, and certainly not the heroic image he carried early in his rule. In Document 7, Napoleon is controlled at the hands of the Duke of Wellington, dancing like a puppet. The painting was published in 1815, the year Napoleon was officially removed from power. As Napoleon’s initial success faded, so did his
After the French monarchy was overthrown on August 10, 1792, Napoleon decided to make his move up in the ranks. After this, Napoleon started becoming a recognized officer. In 1792, Napoleon was prompted to the rank of captain. In 1793, he was chosen to direct the artillery against the siege in Toulon. He seized ground where he could get his guns in range of the British ships. Soon after Toulon fell, Napoleon was promoted to the rank of brigadier general. In 1795, he saved the revolutionary government by controlling a group of rioting citizens by using a famous technique of his. He loaded a bunch of pellets into a cannon and fired it at the crowd. Napoleon was made commander of the French army in Italy. He defeated four Austrian generals in succession, and each army he fought got bigger and bigger. This forced Austria and its allies to make peace with France. But after this, Napoleon was relieved of his command. He was poor and was suspected of treason. Napoleon had no friends. No one would have suspected what Napoleon would do next. In 1796, Napoleon was appointed to put down a revolt in Paris. He calmly took complete control of the situation. He had his men shoot all the rebels in the streets. The French government was saved, but they decided to form a new government called the Directory. Under the new government, Napoleon was made commander of the French army in Italy. During this campaign, the French realized how smart Napoleon was. He developed a tactic
Napoleon also claimed there was ‘freedom of speech’: this was not true. Napoleon made sure that all newspapers wrote news he approved of: he censored all press and made sure that everything delivered was official propaganda. He reduced the amount of political journals published from 73 to 9 and made it clear there were to be no new ones. All articles were written by Napoleon himself or one of his ministers. On top of that, more than half of the printing-presses were shut down and remaining publishers were forced to take an oath declaring loyalty to the government. This again points to the fact that Napoleon centralised his reign and made sure that the legislature had little to no power.
Napoleons’ rise to emperor in France was indisputable mostly because of his overthrow of the Directory. His success’s as commander of the French army in Italy, only led to his aspiring status change to “Emperor” of France after overthrowing the Directory in November of 1799. His undying ambition for expansion of the empire he was creating however would be his undoing. Napoleons rule as emperor of France was quit spectacular actually and many admired and adored him as ruler. His ways were very appealing, and as a speaker he was very persuasive and admired by most of his people until his later years in his fall and demise. However, Napoleon did not seriously adhere to the ideals of the French Revolution, he did that of the Enlightenment but his undying ambition and character as “Emperor” undermined the true need of the French Revolution.
Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military leader and eventual political leader in France who was able to seize power during the end of the French Revolution of the late 1790's and early 1800's. Napoleon was the leader of France from 1804 to 1815 and mostly remembered as a leader in a cycle of European battles. He institutionalized the changes brought about by the French Revolution and sought to spread them throughout Europe. It has been long debated the factors that allowed Napoleon to seize power and eventually crown himself emperor. Such factors that have been considered have been Napoleon's personality, his military exploits, the failings of the Directory, support of the people and army and even sheer luck.
He also began one of the bloodiest periods in French history, the Reign of Terror. During the Reign of Terror, more than 30,000 people were executed, mainly for opposing Robespierre's views. Late in 1794, Robespierre was put to death and a new leader was looked for; this of course turned out to be Napoleon. With many conquered lands under his belt by 1798, Napoleon had a huge following and planned a coup d'etat. On November 18, 1799, Napoleon became the First Consul of France, or in his mind the dictator. Napoleon then crowned himself Emperor in 1804 and conquered many countries including Austria, Prussia, and Russia in 1805,06, and 07 respectively. Such a strong ruler is bound to fall eventually, this happened in 1815 with his death. Even with the many improvements to the country of France in the late 1700's and early 1800's, some still believe that the French Revolution was not worth it's human costs. Detailed below are two opposing viewpoints on the topic.
Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military leader who conquered most of Europe in the early nineteenth century. After a coup in 1799 he crowned himself emperor in 1804. He abdicated the throne after the French attempted to invade Russia in 1812 and exiled, but he returned to power a few years alter only to resign once again after a crushing defeat at the battle of Waterloo and exiled to the island of Saint Helena and died at age 51. Bonaparte was known as an astute, ambitious, and extremely skilled military strategist as he waged war and expanded his empire.
Napoleon Bonaparte’s invasion of Russia was a major factor in his downfall. In 1812, Napoleon, whose alliance with Alexander I had disintegrated, launched an invasion into Russia that ended in a disastrous retreat from Moscow. Thereafter, all of Europe, including his own allies, Austria and Prussia, united against him. Although he continued to fight, the odds he faced were impossible. In April 1814, Napoleon’s own marshals refused to continue the struggle and stepped down from their positions. During the actual Russian campaign, there were many key factors that greatly impacted his downfall.
Not only did Napoleon take control of neighboring countries to France, but he forced his administration, specifically the Napoleonic code, on them as well. When instituting the Napoleonic code, many people rejoiced over the enlightened ideas it spread and freedom it promoted. However, most, if not all of Napoleon’s positive reforms were done so with negative intentions or a counter force in mind. For instance, Napoleon restricted all information in and out of France that viewed him negatively or could potentially obstruct the submissive society he built. In fact, plays, newspapers, and books were censored, which kept his citizens in the dark. The deceit continued when Napoleon promised freedom for all people, but went back on his word once it was no longer convenient for him. For example, Napoleon was facing many