Asked Mar 11, 2020

Differentiate among different classes of DNA variants in
terms of their structures, mechanisms of formation, and
frequency in genomes.


Expert Answer

Step 1

The genome of every individual contain millions of genetic variation or variants which make each and every person unique. Some of these difference will contribute to differences in human eye colour and blood type.

There are about 4 types of DNA variants which are otherwise referred to as genome variants. They are Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP), Deletion-Insertion Polymorphisms (DIP), Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) and Copy Number Variant (CNV).

Step 2

Differentiation in mechanism of formation:

Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP): Many mechanisms can contribute to the formation of SNPs. They include rare mistakes in the replication of DNA or exposure of genome to mutagenic chemicals or radiation in the atmosphere. Among these, the per-base spontaneous mutation is creating SNPs and this mutation rate is still less than one in 30 million per generation.

Deletion-Insertion Polymorphisms (DIP): Biochemical processes are contributing to the formation of DIPs. They include in problem in replication of DNA or problem in DNA recombination and due to mistakes when cells are trying to repair damage such as broken DNA strands.

Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR): These type of variants generally arise from rare, random events that initially produce a short repeated sequence with four to five repeat units.

Copy Number Variant (CNV): These type of variants can be produced due to unequal crossing over. During the process of meiosis I, tandem arrays of the repeating units on homologous chromosomes can pair out of register. If recombination occurs between mispairing repeating units, then the gametes will be produced with more or fewer copies of the repeating unit than original.

Step 3

Differentiation in the frequency of genome:

Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP): SNP will occur about once per kilo base in the comparison of any two haploid gametes.

Deletion-Insertion Polymorphisms (DIP): Comparing with SNPs DIPs are rarer. They are occurring about once in 10 kb of DNA.

Simple Se...

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