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Asked Jan 10, 2020
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Discuss environmental challenges of living on land, and describe how several adaptations meet these challenges

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Expert Answer

Step 1

The first living organism evolved in water. At that moment the atmosphere other than water was not suitable for life. Then gradually the environment started to become more suitable for sustaining life, thanks to the photosynthetic organisms of water who released oxygen. Then in due course of time plants started growing in land i.e. they moved from water to land then came the animals; from fishes to amphibians and then to terrestrial animals to now humans. However this evolution of living organisms from water to land was not easy, had lots of challenges and took a huge amount of time to take place and finally evolved into successful land life forms.

Step 2

The most important challenges and the adaptations living organisms took to address them are;

  1. Plants
    1. Obtaining nutrients: They developed roots which could extract nutrients from soil.
    2. Support to remain standing in soil: Development of hard and strong stem or other modes of getting support like creeping stems which enables the plants to hold the leaves for photosynthesis.
    3. To retain water and prevent water loss: Presence of cuticle and the process of transpiration.
    4. Reproduction: Plants have male pollen and female egg to produce new offspring. They have developed various modes to transfer po...

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