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Asked Oct 21, 2019
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Explain, the reproduction of plants encluding the differences between angiosperms and gymnosperms.

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Expert Answer

Step 1

The process by which the plants produce new offspring is called reproduction. Plants reproduce either sexually or asexually.

Step 2

Asexual reproduction:

The formation of offspring without the fusion of gametes is called asexual reproduction. The offspring produced by asexual reproduction is genetically identical to the parents. Asexual reproduction may occur through fragmentation, vegetative reproduction, budding, and spore formation.

Fragmentation: It occurs when the rooted shoot becomes detached from the main group.

Budding: The new offspring develops from the bud or outgrowth due to the cell division at one specific site.

Vegetative propagation: The new plants are produced from leaves, roots, buds, and stems.

Spore formation: The parent produces hundreds of spores that spread by wind, develop and grow into new plants.

Step 3

Sexual reproduction:

The formation of offspring by fusion of gametes is called sexual reproduction. The offspring produced by sexual reproduction is genetically different from the parents.

Sexual reproduction in angiosperms:

Sexual reproduction in angiosperms occurs in flowers. The flower contains petals, sepals, stamens (male reproductive part) and carpel or pistil (female reproductive part). The anther consists of pollen grains, which produce male gametes. A carpel consists of style, ovary, and stigma. One or more ovules are present in ovary. The egg or female gamete is formed in the ovule. In sexual reproduction, the zygote is formed by the fusion of male and female gametes. This is achieved by pollination. It is the process in which the pollen grains from the anther is transferred to the stigma of the carpel. The pollination may be either self-pollination or cross pollination. After pollination, the gametes ...

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