Asked Feb 1, 2019



Expert Answer

Step 1

For the movement of ions and molecules across the cells, there are two modes of transport that occur. These are active transport and passive transport. Active transport requires the input of energy and substances move against the concentration gradient while passive transport does not require the input of energy and substances move along the concentration gradient. Passive transport is further classified into three types which are:

  • Diffusion
  • Facilitated diffusion
  • Filtration
  • Osmosis
Step 2

Diffusion involves movement of particles both solute and solvent from the region of higher concentration to that of lower concentration. An example is movement of gases between alveoli and blood.

Facilitated diffusion is a type of diffusion in which the transport is mediated by proteins present in the plasma membrane. An example is the transport of protons from mitochondarial matrix to intermembrane space.

Filteration involves movement of solute as well as solvent through membrane brought about by the hydrostatic pressure. An example is urine formation in kidneys.

Osmosis  differs from above three as it involves the movement of solvent particles only.

Step 3

Osmosis is a type of passive transport, which involves movement of water molecules  (not solute) across the semipermeable membrane from the region of higher concentration of water  (i.e. higher water potential or less concentrated solution) to the region of lower concentration of water  (i.e. lower water potential or more concentrated solution).  The movement continues till the water potential is equal on b...

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