Asked Oct 8, 2019

Which of the following are products of the dark (light independent, Calvin cycle) reactions of photosynthesis. 

A. Glucose 

B. Water



E. Light energy


G. Carbon dioxide

 H. Oxygen 

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Step 1

Photosynthesis is a process that required carbon dioxide, sunlight, and water as a reactant and releases oxygen and carbohydrate molecules like glucose. These sugar molecules contain the energy that living things need to survive. The photosynthesis process is divided into two parts:

1) Light-dependent reaction (light reaction)

2) Light independent reaction (dark reaction)

Step 2

Dark Reactions

In the dark reactions, it does not need sunlight even it occurs in the absence of sunlight. Dark reactions use the energy molecules that were generated during the light reaction It is in these reactions that food is synthesized.


Light Reactions

light reactions occur in the presence of sunlight and they are responsible for the production of energy molecules such as ATP and NADPH.

Step 3

Dark reaction

In the dark reaction three phases occur that are:


Carbon Fixation

In the carbon fixation, CO2 taken by plant combines with 5-carbon compound, ribulose 1,5- biphosphate to form two molecules of 3-phosphoglycerate (3PGA). This reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme ribulose biphosphate carboxylase or RUBISCO (RuBp).


Carbon Reduction 

In the second phase, 3PGA uses 6 ATP molecules to form isomer of 3PGA termed as 1,3- phosphoglycerate. Then 6NADPH to form glyceride-3 – phosphate.


RuBp Regeneration 

This step’s responsibility is to regenerate the RuBp in which reaction is beginning. At the same time, it also synthesizes glucose which is stored as food. Glyceride -3- phosphate uses 3 ATP molecules to convert into ribulose-1,5- biphosphate which enters a new cycle of dark reaction by combining with the incoming CO2.


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