Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892



Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892
Textbook Problem

What are the major functions of each of the eleven organ systems of the vertebrate body?

Summary Introduction

To review:

The major functions of the eleven organ systems of the vertebrate body.


An organ system is a group of organs, which function together to perform a common task or purpose. A total of eleven organ systems make up an organism or a living human being. The different organ systems are an integumentary system, skeletal system, muscular system, cardiovascular system, nervous system, immune system, endocrine system, respiratory system, digestive system, excretory system, and reproductive system.


The functions of the eleven organ systems listed above and the name of two organs in each system are described below:

1. Integumentary system: It is the external covering of the body, that is, the skin including the fingernails and the hair. Its function is to protect and cushion the deeper body tissues from injury.

It acts as a waterproof covering. It produces vitamin D with the help of sunlight. Skin and nerves are the two examples of the organs of this system.

2. Skeletal system: It consists of cartilages, bones, and tendons. Its function is to provide framework and support to the body. It is protective in nature as it encloses and protects the brain. Bones and cartilages are two examples of the organs of skeletal systems.

3. Muscular system: The muscular system is formed by the skeletal muscles. The muscles of the body contract or shorten and thus, they help in the movement of body structures. Its organs are skeletal muscle tissues and blood vessels.

4. Cardiovascular or circulatory system: This system delivers oxygen, hormones, and nutrients to the cells and picks up the wastes (carbon dioxide) from the cells. The blood is used as a carrier. The heart pumps blood into the blood vessels so that it can be transported to the different body tissues. The two organs in it are the heart and blood vessels.

5. Nervous system: The function of the nervous system is to serve as a primary regulatory system of the body and coordinate activities of the body. It includes a sensory system, interpretative function, and motor function. The two organs of this organ system are brain and spinal cord...

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