Biology (MindTap Course List)

11th Edition
Eldra Solomon + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337392938



Biology (MindTap Course List)

11th Edition
Eldra Solomon + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337392938
Textbook Problem

Trace the development of the principal vertebrate brain regions from the hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain, and compare the brains of fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.

Summary Introduction

To distinguish: The development of the different region of the vertebrate brain and compare the brain of fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.

Introduction: All vertebrates have the same basic structure of the brain, which only differs on the basis of complexity especially of the cerebrum and cerebellum. The vertebrate brain is divided into three parts that are the hindbrain, the midbrain, and the forebrain. These divisions are further subdivided into different parts.


The development of the three brain regions are as follows:

  • Forebrain:

    The embryonic forebrain subdivides to form the telencephalon and diencephalon. In vertebrates, the telencephalon develops to form cerebrum and olfactory. The first and second ventricles lie within the cerebrum. The diencephalon develops to form thalamus and hypothalamus part of the brain.

  • Midbrain:

    The midbrain develops to form mesencephalon, which further develops to form optic lobes. In fishes and mammals, midbrain is the prominent part of the brain mainly used to sense the smell.

  • Hindbrain:

    The hindbrain subdivides to form the metencephalon and myelencephalon. The metencephalon develops to form cerebellum and pons. Medulla part of brain stores implicit memories like swimming, skating, and so on. It also regulates the signal in the cerebral cortex and helps in voluntary activities, whereas myelencephalon develops to form medulla. The medulla, pons, and midbrain together form the brain stems...

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