A Brief Look at Bioethanol Essay

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In transport sector, bioethanol is considered a main alternative fuel and there is significant increase in production from 17 to 86 billion litres over the period 2000-2011 [1]. There is an expectation to exceed over 125 billion litres by 2020 [1, 2]. Normally ethanol is blended with petrol with several percentages, either low 5% (E5), 10% (E10) or high 85% (E85) [1]. Production Methods: There are several technologies in producing bioethanol depending on raw materials, which can be from annual crops (wheat, maize, sugar-beet, and potato), herbaceous perennials (miscanthus, switchgrass and reed canary grass), woody perennials (short rotation coppice and pine) or residues and wastes (forest Residues, straw and organic municipal waste) [3].…show more content…
After 2009 each scenario shows different amount of emissions reduction. By using 10% of biofuel the first and second scenarios present maximum emission reduction of 2.54 % and 4.1% respectively in 2020. Third and fourth scenarios achieving 6% emissions reduction with 23.8% and 14.6% of market share. [4] Another study conducted by journal of Applied Energy shows well-to-wheel analysis of energy produced from different types of biofuel and their impact on greenhouse gases emissions. As shown in figure 2, ethanol has lower carbon emissions compared to gasoline and diesel. Specifically ethanol is made of sugar-beet or wood has significantly lower gCO2-equevlent/km than petrol fuels, while wheat ethanol produces greater emissions since fertilisers are used in its production process. [3] Other Considerations: In addition to emissions saving, knocking resistance in gasoline engine is another main advantage of bioethanol since it has a higher octane rating [1]. However, there are other main issues that should be considered such as: 1. Land availability: specifying the location of these lands, the current usage and the net energy gain (NEG) per unit area. Furthermore, the consequences of using these lands on food production and water [5]. 2. Emissions reduction percentage: bioethanol emissions percentage reduction is strongly
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