Hildegard Peplau Latriece Session Arizona College of Allied Health Effective Thinking and Verbal Behavior NUR201 Amber Kool January 23, 2017 Hildegard Peplau Prominent Nurse Theorist, Hildegard Peplau, was born in Reading, Pennsylvania in the year of 1909. As a small child, she grew watching people, who obtained a very ferocious strand of influenza virus, who were greatly ill, thus many died. As Peplau grew up, she felt the need to help people who were ill and sick, she wanted to make them well and to feel better. Her desire took her to Pottstown, Pennsylvania School of Nursing Diploma Program, in which she graduated in 1931. She went on to work as a staff nurse in Pennsylvania and New York. Shortly thereafter, Peplau …show more content…
Her resume continued employment by the World Health Organization, the United States Surgeon General, the United States Air Force, and the National Institute of Mental Health, plus the United States Government. Unfortunately, one of our greatest theoretical minds, Hildegard Peplau dies March 17, 1999. Peplau was most widely known for her pronounced belief in interpersonal relations theory in nursing. In that theory, she felt that the patient and the nurse would develop an interpersonal therapeutic relationship that would deliver a desirable outcome for the patient. From the viewpoint of Peplau, caring for a patient involves the nurse, the patient, and the understanding relationship that develops between them. There were two ultimate goals that needed to be achieved, the patient’s survival and the patient’s acknowledgement of his or her condition and ways of prevention. Within the interpersonal relationship, the nurse learns about her patient through assessment, treatment, and evaluation, therapeutically. Peplau stated that the nurse-patient interpersonal relationship develops over four phases: orientation, identification, exploitation, and resolution. Because the nursing process and Peplau’s interpersonal relations theory, both focus on having a therapeutic relationship with patients, they work interchangeably together. Assessment versus orientation entails
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Peplau utilized both deductive and inductive reasoning in her theory development work (Reed & Shearer, 2011). The deductive reasoning methods used were that Peplau integrated ideas from a number of theories into her theory of interpersonal relations. Influenced by works of Sigmund Freud, particularly his interest in unconscious motivation as well as Harry S. Sullivan’s theory of interpersonal relations all contributed to her development of the theory of interpersonal processes in nursing, For example she refers to Sullivan’s concepts of anxiety, self-system and modes of experiencing. (Peterson & Bredow, 2017). She also incorporated into her theory some elements from developmental psychology and learning theory (Armstrong & Kelly, 1995) and some ideas of the humanistic psychologists, Abraham Maslow, Rollo May and Carl Rogers. (Peterson & Bredow, 2017). For example, Peplau’s systematic approach to establishment of nurse-patient relationship and therapeutic intervention are ideas that resonated with Martha Rogers' theoretical assumptions about human pattern and organization. (Armstrong & Kelly, 1995).
There are many ways of forming a relationship and gaining the trust and respect of the patient and I had to work out the different things that make a good therapeutic relationship. According to Hinchliff et al (2003) there are a number of important elements that make a good therapeutic relationship, but it is important to make clear that a therapeutic relationship is a formal relationship between a medical professional and patient. The Nursing and Midwifery Council (2008) maintains that at all times nursing staff must maintain appropriate professional boundaries in the relationships they have with patients and clients.
The framework for creating a therapeutic relationship is built on the nurse’s ability to show empathy towards the client. Empathy is being able to put oneself in the patient’s shoes, to feel the same things they feel
My personal definition of nursing is taking care of my patient as a whole; using my knowledge, being compassionate and caring, respectful and honest. Taking care of the; spiritual, physical and emotional aspect of the patient, and taking into consideration their family and environment. Learning about the different theorists I associate myself the most with Hildegard Peplau. Peplau believed that the relationship between the patient and the nurse was focus of attention, rather than the patient only as the unit of attention. (Chitty & Black p.314-315). Using Peplau’s theory my relationship begins with my patients as strangers and I try to
Hildegard Peplau’s middle-range theory, Interpersonal Relations, established in 1948 and highlighted the nurse-patient relationship as the groundwork of nursing practice. Peplau supports each role individually, the nurse and the patient, by ensuring that equal participation is implemented to reach a mutual goal. For example, the role of the patient reflects vulnerability and the expectation to be open to the health care providers throughout care and treatment plan. Subsequently, the nurse is supposed to facilitate a reciprocated relationship by noting the client’s behavior, defining the client’s illness, creating the most proper care for the client, understanding the physician’s treatment plan and confirming it, and intervening when required (Sue Penckofer, 2013).
This theory describes the different phases that a nurse-client relationship goes through. The phases that my patient and I will most likely be working in are the orientation and the identification phases because our relationship will be new. Our interaction will focus on building a mutual trust and understanding, as well as answer basic questions as to why my patient is here and things that she has been struggling with. Depending on how long my patient has been in the program, she may be open to exploring more of her feelings and sharing more about herself with me. Focusing on developing a good nurse-client relationship will help me during my interaction with my patient and will help me understand her needs better.
With many theories on nursing, the nurse must determine which approach is best suited to her particular skills and patient population. In 1952 Hildegard E. Peplau presented her theory on interpersonal relations in regard to nursing care and practice, providing a model for nurses to aid patients in healing and overcoming illness through personal interaction (Cherry & Jacob, 2011, p. 96).
The interpersonal theory of nursing by Peplau was examined in accordance with Chinn and Kramer (2011). The purpose of the theory was described to improve the
In comparison, Middle range theory is composed by clear propositions and can contain testable hypothesis (Armstrong, & Kelly, 1995). As a result, Peplau’s Interpersonal relationship theory is a middle range theory because the proposition of her theory are testable, specific and limited (Armstrong, & Kelly, 1995). In her theory, she applies the principle of human relationships and explained that the nurse and patient should work together to gain more knowledge in the care process (Gastmans, 1998). She used deductive reasoning in her theory because she integrated ideas of other theorists
Nurse and patient relationships are referred to therapeutic relationships, they are a person-centred approach to care (Berman Et al 2012). For a therapeutic relationship to be effective in meeting the client/patient goals the nurse needs to ‘earn the person’s trust and respect.’ Berman Et al (2012) suggests that the trust and respect of a patient can be earned through ‘sound nursing knowledge and use of effective communication.’ This is reflected in the Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia’s competency standards. These national standards that are regulated and followed by all nurses, they are updated regularly to remain contemporary and
As a nurse, communication is an essential and important factor to building a therapeutic relationship between a nurse and patient as it is the difference between average and excellent nursing care, as it helps maintain a good quality of life and allows nurses’ and patients to interact and provide comfort when needed. The importance of good communication can become apparent with patients especially when they are in the hospital, as it helps the nurses build a positive relationship with patients and helps overcome barriers including physical, psychological and social. A therapeutic relationship is built on many factors which include both verbal and non-verbal communication which helps maintains the relationship and strengthens it due to the positive impact it has not only on the patient’s experience but also the nurse’s.
A nurse-patient relationship is the basic requirements in all practice settings. Its usage is to manage communication between an organization and a public while maintaining boundaries in the therapeutic relationship. Based on Peplau’s interpersonal theory, communication takes place in a nurse-client relationship where therapeutic process occurs involving complex factors such as environment, attitudes, practices, and beliefs in the dominant culture (seu.edu, 2015). The actions of each person in a nurse-patient relationship is measured on the collaboration of their thoughts, feelings, and experiences. Nurse’s work to attain, maintain, and restore the patient’s health until patient have fulfilled the health care needs. Patient must be guided and provided a well-respected environment until a better health and specific needs are fully considered in the relationship. In this kind of setting, nurse’s must create relationship with patients by communicating receptivity, assimilating the concepts of empathy, trust, genuineness, respect, and confidentiality into their interactions.
By giving nurses a sense of identity, nursing theory can help patients, managers and other healthcare professionals to recognize the unique contribution that nurses make to the healthcare service (Draper 1990).Hildegard Peplau, one of the role model of nursing theorist, established a theory of interpersonal relationships in nursing. Her reason is the goal of the nurse-client relationship is to give a quality nursing care moving forward to health promotion and maintenance. The purpose of this paper is to conduct a basic assessment of her theory.
Arnold E (1999). Interpersonal Relationships: Professional Communication Skills for Nursing. 3rd Edition. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company.