A Study By Schrader ( 2012 ) Examined Osteoarthritis And Entheseal Remodeling At Tombos Nubia

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A study by Schrader (2012) examined osteoarthritis and entheseal remodeling at Tombos Nubia, after the Egyptian New Kingdom colonization (1550-1069 BCE). The author used skeletal remains from the colonial town Tombos as a way to compare activity patterns during Egypt’s colonial expansion into Nubia. Many Egyptian researchers vary on how Egyptian colonial policies impacted Nubian inhabitants. Some believe that the local populace was forced to meet Egyptian tributes, which included slaves, goods, gold, and grain (Schrader, 2012:61). While others believe that there were positive interactions between the two groups, which included minimal tributes and the ability of Nubians to hold onto cultural values (Schrader, 2012:62). Schrader’s research focused on entheseal changes and osteoarthritis in the skeletal remains found at Tombos, in an effort to understand how Nubian activity levels altered. The author used entheses, as a way of measuring musculoskeletal stress markers, and osteoarthritis to compare Tombos population (Schrader, 2012:62). Both conditions are impacted by the sex, age, and body size of an individual; along with environmental factors and genetic predispositions (Schrader, 2012:62). Even though neither of these conditions allow us to understand know exactly what an individual did while they were alive, they will offer up certain information about the population. Such as if the individual worked as a manual laborer or in a less physically demanding position

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