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A Survey Of Theories Of International Migration

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This literature review starts with a survey of theories of international migration, the emergence of Filipino Labour Diaspora, focusing on the role of the Philippine state. Consequently, it examines the role of Canadian state in attracting FLCMs to work as domestic workers in Canada. Lastly, it examines the role of the market in perpetuating gender role and victimization in labor diaspora.

1. Theories of International Migration
Theories of international migration studies often neglect the role of the state that produces and shape the process. Yet, politics and the states underlie much of the international migration movements through immigration policies and institutionalized bureaucracy related to migration. For instance, both
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Here, the state is integrated only when it deals with market expansion, political power or any other capitalist interests of the government. Conversely, the social capital theory explains structural links, such as the memberships gained from networks and social institutions both in countries of origin and destination. Lastly, the theory of cumulative causation explains the personal, social and economic changes, which migration brings to an individual and its community (Massey 1999). Here the role of states is left behind or if it is mentioned, it one-sidedly deals with receiving countries.
2. Overseas Filipino Workers and the Role of the State
This section aims to trace the emergence of Filipino labour diaspora by relying on historical analysis to understand the role of the state in fostering out-migration to the Philippines. Milton Esman defined diaspora as “a minority ethnic group of migrant origin which maintains sentimental or material links with its land of origin.” Diaspora studies in the 1980s and 1990s surfaced as a sociological approach to account for international migration and assimilation. Diasporas are believed to not have assimilated into their host country, and consciously share a collective memory because they formed an imagined community and a global village made possible by globalization. James Clifford adds that diasporas maintain links to their homeland with the desire for eventual return nurtured by a shared and an
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