Abstract . The Labeling Theory Proposes That Once A Juvenile

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Abstract
The labeling theory proposes that once a juvenile has been labeled a deviant or delinquent they become stigmatized as a criminal, and begin to believe the label or accept it in a self-fulfilling prophecy. Because of these labels, many juveniles continue with their deviant acts because they feel obligated to act out in a negative manner. Sociologists Tannenbaum, Becker, Lement are more interested in the reaction to the crime, not the cause of the crime, and have theorized that once an individual is formally labeled or tagged by the criminal justice system they will develop a negative self-concept that makes them self-conscious and conscious of societal reactions, which encourage the individual into future deviance. Although the
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Labeling leads to dramatization of a particular act – which propagates the behavioral clash between the individual and the community. Through ascribing labels, the individuals acquire a negative self-image. The individuals accept themselves as labeled by the community. Such people are likely to continue engaging in deviant acts because they become accustomed to the labels. Secondary deviance also arises due to the social rejection that deviants face in the community.
Once you decide on the theory, describe how it relates to juveniles by explaining what the theory believes causes the juvenile problems. Labeling theory (social reaction theories) arose in the late 1930s. The development of the theory is attributed to Frank Tannenbaum in 1938 because of the apparent conflict between the young individuals and adults within communities (Vold, 2016). By the 1960’s, the United States was undergoing significant cultural and political conflict; and the labeling theory became an important theory in defining crime. Of particular concern during this period is that it was a period of black emancipation. However, due to lack of jobs and high poverty, majority of African Americans engaged in crime and other forms of antisocial behavior. It was during this period that labeling was at its highest. Howard Becker introduced the major concepts that define labeling theory in 1963. The founders of labeling theory contended that theories of crime causation at the

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