1. We point out in the chapter that scores from an instrument may be reliable but not valid, yet not the reverse. Why would this be so?
The scores from any source can be reliable as the authority or sincerity towards responses is expected. Validity is of different type’s criterion, and the content validity. Face validity is often calculated and verified for instruments by teachers and it validates the nature of instruments but it doesn’t ensure the validity of all types.
2. What type of evidence—content-related, criterion-related, or construct-related—do you think is the easiest to obtain? The hardest? Why?
Type of evidence is of different types, the content related evidences are the easiest to obtain. Constructs are based upon questionnaires and their validity so it requires ensured validity for long run effects and validity of instruments. Sample size and tests to be applied are also issues in criterion and construct validity.
3. In what way(s) might the format of an instrument affect its validity?
Format of an instrument affect validity as it requires a balanced mode of the questionnaires and interviews to be done. In case the questions are lengthy, the required level of questionnaires will be more than the satisfactory limit that will cause lack of information and evidences. The respondent will not have any interest in responses for a lengthy questionnaires.
4. “There is no single piece of evidence that satisfies construct-related validity.” Is this statement
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Content validity is achieved when the content of the assessment matches the educational objectives. Criterion validity is demonstrated by the ability of the test to relate to external requirements. Construct validity takes into account the educational variables, such as the native language of the students, to predict the test outcomes. Reliable assessments have consistent results; Reliability refers to the consistency of a measure. A test is considered reliable if we get the same result repeatedly.
Even though these tests are time consuming they judge the education of students'. Standardized tests should not be used to judge the education of a student. The students’ scores on
Please list the evidence submitted for each task. Indicate the page numbers where the evidence can be found or describe the nature of the evidence (e.g. video,
standardized tests is that they lack a level of comprehension and are incapable of succeeding in the educational system. This belief is especially prevalent in regards to high stakes tests such as college entrance and high school graduation exams because the focus is on the test score. The perception is that these scores are the sole indicator of the student’s knowledge of a subject and their ability to succeed at a higher level of education. Therefore,
This study also stated that, “every standardized test has a certain “error of measurement” which means that a given score could actually be off by several points in either direction. High stakes, however, have single scores as the cut-off point. Those scores do not account for the inaccuracies that all test publishers acknowledge”(azstandards). There have been many studies in which students take the same test on different days, and their score varies greatly. High stakes testing does not give any consideration to these errors.
There are many types of evidence to apply on my paper. Pictures offer the greatest source of information for readers because
Valid – The test must be shown to measure what it is intended to measure. Unbiased – The test should not place students at a disadvantage because of gender, ethnicity, language, or disability.” Yet, all three requirements for a test to be viable do not apply to standardized testing. Results produced are not consistent, as the day to day lives of students are constantly changing; Issues in the students’ lives may affect their thoughts, emotions, and health that would affect the results of their tests, providing a variety of test scores for one person alone. The validity of the test is also in question as it does not account for differences in students’ backgrounds and personal life so test scores do not accurately measure student’s abilities, but rather, it measures their ability to memorize information and test taking skills. Standardized testing holds a very large amount of bias, as the students of different ethnicities, cultures, and languages, have to confront many biased questions that are present in standardized tests. Therefore, standardized testing, according to Zucker’s analysis of an effective test, should not be used as an effective measure for testing students’ intelligence as it breaks the three requirements that make
Inaccurate. many tests that kids take and try their hardest at, and they got a bad grade on it and it wasn't their fault, and the reason is that one teacher gave one of their students “stupid” work because of a bad grade on a standardized test. The test don't let kid express their creativity and many other things that teacher teaches kids to do. So therefore its inaccurate.
The request for evidence generated based on documents submitted has been investigated and examined to present alternative facts and assumptions by presuming actions. Hence, request for evidence can be categorized as following determination.
that only one half of the students would answer correctly, resulting in a wide range of scores. Kohn asserts that "The main objective of these tests is to rank, not to rate; to spread out the scores, not to gauge the quality of a given student or school" (A look at);
Reliability refers to coherence, stability and dependability in test results, generally using internal consistency to express the levels of reliability in the test. The higher reliability indicates the higher level of accordance, stabilization and dependability in test results. Reliability is the precondition of validity (Guba and Lincoln, 1981). The same findings may not generate if the same research is repeated, because many influencing factors may work in the process of research. The process of establishment in reliability research includes: the research rigorously collect and explain data in consistent investigation (internal checks); the process is transparent (sample design, field work, inquiry and rational data). Patton (1987) suggests that the use of triangulation in multiple approaches can increase the reliability in results.
The following category discusses the reliability and validity of the SAT. Firstly, the reliability measures the consistency and steadiness of the SAT scores and validity measures how the test is being consumed. The SAT is a reliable test for the reason that if an individual takes the SAT multiple times he or she would receive comparable or higher scores each time the test is given to the individual due to the culture of the test. The SAT is valid since the test is designed to measure an individual cognitive ability and the achievement of students. Research has proved that cognitive test validities are generalizable and predictive of academic performance (Shen, Sackett, Kuncel, Beatty, Rigdon & Kiger, 2012). The SAT shows that more selective
On the other hand, the types of validity include content validity, criterion validity and construct validity (Litwin, 1995). The assessment of these forms of reliability and validity determines the quality of the data that our tools will collect and hence affects how reliable and valid the research will be.