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Adjuvants In Vaccines

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The viruses that cause tumorigenic transformation produce oncoviral antigens. These antigens are recognized by the immune system as “non-self” because they are present on infected cells (Saxena and Bhardwaj 2017).
Neoantigens, which are MHC restricted antigens, are produced by mutations in tumor cells so they are not found on all tumors. Because neoantigens are unique to the individual, vaccines that target these antigens need to be personalized (Saxena and Bhardwaj 2017).
Finally, antigens that are over expressed significantly in tumor cells compared to normal cells are simply known as overexpressed antigens (Saxena and Bhardwaj 2017).
Adjuvants in Vaccines
Adjuvants are substances that can boost the immune system. They are extremely
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Some New Adjuvants
Nanoparticles are a recently developed type of adjuvant that help vaccines access the lymph nodes. These nanoparticles can allow the vaccine to be directly deposited into the lymph node, activating DCs and CTLs via intranodal injections. Nanoparticle vaccines may also reach the lymph node by lymphatic drainage. In the lymph node, CD8 CTLs are produced by cross-presentation of lymph node DCs (Saxena and Bhardwaj 2017). Nanoparticle vaccines could be vital for the future of cancer treatment.
Another new type of adjuvants are self-polymerizing scaffolds. They incorporate TLR agonists and peptide antigens. This allows the molecule to remain water soluble at room temperature unlike TLR agonists. The scaffolds undergo temperature-dependent self-polymerization which makes immunogenic particles water soluble. These particles are drained to the lymph node where they activate DCs (Saxena and Bhardwaj 2017).
Albumin binding agonists are effective because of the abundance of albumin in the blood and lymph. Vaccines with albumin binding agonists have TAAs with lipid tails that have a high affinity for albumin. Once bound, the vaccine is taken to lymph nodes. This vaccine type is known to safely advance CD8 CTL activation (Saxena and Bhardwaj 2017).
Oncolytic viruses can also be used as vaccine adjuvants in oncolytic virus therapy, also known as virotherapy. This can
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