African National Congress Youth League

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Historical Details: Mandela joined the African National Congress(ANC) in 1942 and helped form the African National Congress Youth League (ANCYL) in 1944 as an executive member.

In 1950, he became ANCYL president and continued the Programme of Action and expanded the Anti-Apartheid mission through the Defiance Campaign and Mandela Plan(M-Plan).
In 1956, 156 ANCYL members, including Mandela, were arrested for treason. Though acquitted, Mandela was imprisoned for traveling without a valid passport and inciting strikes.

During his time in prison, the Anti-Apartheid Movement (AAM) and the United Democratic Front(UDF) continued the fight against apartheid and a new democratic system.

Boehmer’s Analysis: As a distant royal and well educated
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Upon his release from prison, Mandela and the ANC renounced weapons and force.

Boehmer’s Analysis: The Anti-Apartheid mission and Mandela imitated a Gandhi style protest for the various boycotts, Progamme of Action, and the Defiance Campaign. Eventually, the ANC and Mandela believed the Algerian analyst Frantz Fanon armed struggle was a more effective model against colonization. Mandela solidified his new creed in a speech to the Pan-African Freedom Movement of East and Central Africa (PAFMECA) named “A Land Ruled By the Gun”, where Mandela hoped to establish a Pan-African relationship with African governments and nationalist organizations. Once released from prison, Mandela and the ANC again embraced the Gandhi form of non-violent discussion and negotiation.

My Analysis: Throughout Mandela’s mission, he drew inspiration from across the myriad of the ideological spectrum. Inspired by Gandhi, Mandela and the Anti-Apartheid mission discovered the foundation for the Defiance Campaign, M-Plan, and Programme of Action. When Mandela and the ANCYL felt the need for stronger resistance they found a new influence in Pan-African support and Frantz Fanon armed resistance. Mandela and the Anti-Apartheid movement represent the duality of political struggles capturing the anger that fuels an armed resistance and the hope that drives a pacifist movement.
The Freedom Crusade: The Struggle For Freedom Within Concrete Walls

Historical Details:
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