Alcohol Is The World’S Fifth Leading Risk Factor For Social

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Alcohol is the world’s fifth leading risk factor for social and public health problems around the world[1, 2]; however, alcohol drinking has still been intensively increasing among adolescents[3, 4]. Drinking habits are highly socially modeled, while social relationships influence an individual 's drinking at all ages. The social pressured by family, friends, and acquaintances can motivate either drink more or less[5]. It is worth noting that almost every event of the daily lives is marked with some kinds of festive rituals at which alcohol is served culturally and practically[6-8]. Some researchers found that children learn to drink early in Zambia by drinking small quantities when they are sent to buy alcohol; children in France, Italy, …show more content…

Four motives of drinking, which are an enhancement, coping, socialization, and conformity motive, have been categorized by scholars and experts in the studies of behavioral drinking[13-15]. The enhancement motive is a drinking to increase positive outcomes or to experience pleasant feeling[16], whereas coping motive represents a drinking to mitigate negative emotions such as to forget one’s problems[13]. Both enhancement and coping motives are associated with heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems[17]. The social motive or socialization is a drinking for the favorable social rewards such as enjoying a party, making more friends and building new relationships[17, 18]. Lastly, when ones are invited or pressured to drink by friends or social groups; it is called conformity motive or drinking to avoid social disposal[14]. Conformity motives have a strong relation to the cultural settings, particularly in some cultures such as Japan, China, and Cambodia. In these countries, the independent and interdependent cultural models have various influences on emotional, motivational, and cognitive processes[19]. In Japan, giri is a key understanding of social obligations which is defined as moral principles; the rules one has to obey to maintain social relationships and to avoid

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