Miniature Lit Review
Gender inequality in sport is a hot button issue in our society today. Women, for the most part, have been on the short end of the stick for centuries in reference to participation in sports. Way back in Ancient times, women were not even allowed to watch the Olympics games because they were deemed “ladylike”. Women slowly began to play sports beginning in the 1800s. Some notable events were the first all-women’s golf tournament in Scotland in 1811 and women’s single competition at Wimbledon in 1884 (Frantz, 2014). Women were allowed to participate in some Olympic sports in the 1900 Games such as tennis, golf, and croquet (Frantz, 2014). In 1928, women were allowed to compete in Track and Field events in the Olympics (Frantz, 2014). Women were officially allowed to play basketball beginning in 1971 (Frantz, 2014). Title IX was passed in 1972, which required educational institutions to provide equitable funding to help women’s sports programs. Eventually, more and more organized sport leagues for women sprawled into existence. However, there was still something holding them back. According to Jay Coakley, a retired professor of sociology in sport at the University of Colorado-Colorado Springs, the dominant gender ideology that we the majority of society follows is centered upon three major beliefs. The first is that human beings are either male or female (Coakley, 2015). The second is that heterosexuality is the
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Though there have been some minor improvements of the inequalities of women in sports, there are still many more changes that need to be made. The controversy of the topic allows a wide range of research. From the issues of Title IX to the issues of society and its gender roles, there are still inequalities of women in sports.
Women in professional sports fits into the Sex and Power: Global Gender Inequality class because many female athletes have experienced the inequalities in a professional sports setting. Female athletes are being put down by gender inequalities, causing less females participating in athletic programs. Women athletes are being paid less than their male counterparts. Along with being paid less, female and males are receiving unequal benefits in the form of scholarship, media coverage, transportation, and stadium conditions. The professional sport’s world is filled with the obsession of body image and sexuality. Through this obsession, female athletes have been abused from the people they trust the most. There is an increasing inequality in women’s professional sports in the form of pay, sexuality, and abuse.
Women have struggled for more than two centuries to be taken serious as professionals. There should not be a double standard in sports especially if it is loved and played by both genders. Over the years, females have competed against the stereotype of being too fragile both mentally and physically to play strenuous sports. The passion and work ethic of the female professional athletes is just as strong as the males and everyone should be treated equal and be able to have a chance at making a better living for themselves as well as their family. One area that still faces a continual struggle in sports is gender equality. Female
Since women have been allowed to participate in sports, the global community has become a closer knit. Scholars and organizations have acknowledged this and moved their focus to helping women gain equality in several different aspects. One being the passing of title xl, which protects individuals from discrimination under any education program or activity that receives federal funding. This one action has helped shift
Over two decades have passed since the enactment of Title IX, a federal law prohibiting sex discrimination in federally funded education, including athletics. As a result of Title IX, women and girls have benefited from more athletic participation opportunities and more equitable facilities. Because of Title IX, more women have received athletic scholarships and thus opportunities for higher education that some may not have been able to afford otherwise. In addition, because of Title IX the salaries of coaches for women's teams have increased. Despite the obstacles women face in athletics, many women have led and are leading the way to gender equity.
Title IX of the Education Amendments Act of 1972 states,”No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance” (Vest and Masterson par. 1). Title IX has increased women’s participation in athletics tremendously. Before Title IX only 100,000 female athletes participated in high school sports; following the act, Title IX was issued more than 500,000 women participated (“Achieving Success Under” par. 2). Title IX has made progress by increasing the amount of participants and money spent with the women teams as much as the men teams. Even though the numbers are not
In the Journal “Sport and Society: Annual Review of Sociology” written by Robert E. Washington and David Karen they talk about gender and sports in one section of their Journal. In this section the author addresses masculinity in sports and the attempts of Title IX to try and make sports equal in the sense that if women make up 40% of the athlete population they should receive 40% of the resources. However, this is not the case “The most recent data (Suggs 2000) reveal that in 1998–1999 women made up 42% of Division I athletes, received 42% of scholarship monies, 31% of recruiting budgets, 34% of coaching-salary budgets, and 33% of total operating expenses. According to Andrew Zimbalist (2000:B9), women “still play in inferior facilities, stay in lower-caliber hotels on the road, eat in cheaper restaurants, benefit from smaller promotional budgets, and have fewer assistant coaches.” (Washington and Karen, 2001) This long quote showcases that although women are starting to get what they deserve when it comes to a the percentage of Athletics that they comprise it is still not up to par. Although it is not technically salary, the gap in scholarship money and money spent of faculty for female athletes showcases how money it’s sports always goes to the male athletes no matter at what level. In a more recent example that further pushes the points that were made in Washington and Karen’s journal would be the U.S. Women’s Soccer team compared to the U.S. Men’s Soccer team. Both
It is the year 2016, the United States has had its first African American president, gay marriage is legalized, and women and men are supposedly seen as equals in the workplace and educational institutions. It is important to note that while steps to equality have been made through the Equal Pay Act and Title IX, gender discrimination is still prevalent in society. The NCAA reported since 1988, in the 2007-2008 academic year, institutions yielded a net gain of 2, 342 women’s teams added to varsity rosters (Pickett, Dawkins, Braddock, 2012). There are now more than 174,000 female collegiate athletes thanks to Title IX (Koller, 2010). Though there has been a substantial increase in female athletic participation, this number is still nowhere near the participation of male athletes. Many women still do not participate in sports due to discrimination and the concept of equality in Title IX could potentially affect women’s interest in athletic participation.
Molly Quintons essay “Sexism and Sports” writes about the experiences of sexism that occurred because of sports. Quinton writes this essay to stop sexist males from ignoring women because of their gender by using examples such as past experiences. While writing to an audience of sexist males, Quinton explains that women are just as capable of liking sports as men are. Therefore, to illustrate that Quinton uses examples achieve her purpose for writing the essay, there are a few available quotes. For instance, Quinton uses examples such as “the Little League coach whom… questions my pitch count” (Paragraph 5) and “the guy at the gym who asks me to rattle off every team in the AL East when [viewing] my Red Sox hat” (Paragraph 5) are both
Women’s equality is an issue that has been around for awhile. While women have been given many rights to increase equality, including the right to vote and go to college, the problem hasn’t completely vanished. One area that still sees this is in sports. Women’s sports do not draw nearly as many fans and are not covered in the media as much as men’s sports, pay differences between male and female athletes are large, and female athletes have to wait longer to start their professional career than men, which risks their professional career before it even starts.
The sports world has been a new area where women are recognized. In previous times women’s sports were almost non-existent. In schools many girl teams did not receive adequate funds for uniforms and equipment. Boys sports were much more popular, such as football or basketball. If a girl wanted to play a guy sport she would be labeled as a
Sports become stereotyped as gender-neutral, feminine, or masculine based on conceptions regarding gender, gender differences, and beliefs about the appropriateness of participation due to gender (Colley et al., 1987; Csizma, Wittig, & Schurr, 1988; Koivula, 1995; Matteo, 1986). Sports labeled as feminine seem to be those that allow women participants to act in accordance with the stereotyped expectations of femininity (such as being graceful and nonagressive) and that provide for beauty and aesthetic pleasure (based on largely male standards). A sport is labeled as masculine if it involves the following: 1) attempts to physically overpower the opponent(s) by bodily contact; 2) a direct use of bodily force to a heavy object; 3) a
The adverse topic of women in sports stems from society's disregard to viewing women as persons. Women were, and in other parts of the world continue to be viewed as property of men and have no significant role in society. Being allowed into the Olympics was a step in the right direction for women across the world, but it was meager attempt equality. Women were still restricted by what events they were allowed to compete in, how they were trained and coached and even limited as to what they could wear. A woman’s femininity played a large role in the way they were perceived by society; weak. Women were seen as incommensurate to men and it was something that has taken us centuries to reverse. Today, women are given the rights we should have
In the last one hundred years women have made tremendous inroads in many facets of life. Of that there can be little doubt. Women may now hold jobs, own property and participate in professional sports. Today women can compete in sports, once a vestige of male domination; there is now room for women in that arena. But even today women in sports are not portrayed in the same light as their male counterparts. To a large degree this is because of today's cultural ideal of women.