Animal testing is intended to express the use of animals in scientific research. Every year more than 115
million animals around the world have been used in laboratory experiments (Human Society
International,2012). They include animals that are generally used in medical research such as
cats, dogs, guinea pigs, mice, rats and monkeys. This experience has a major role in the progress
of medicine. For example, it has been used in the development of drugs and surgical procedures
and artificial body parts. Galen of Pergamum, a Greek physician who has been known as the first
scientist who performed experiments on living animals during the second century ( Hajar,2011). The early trials
conducted before the development of …show more content…
Many developed countries, developed a more
comprehensive regulatory framework. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration demands to test
new products on animals, and exclude most animal-related laws.
It also organizes experiments by 3 ways: First: the Animal Welfare Act, which is the only federal law which sets
basic standards for the care and treatment of animals in laboratories, but exclude mice and birds used in
research purposes, which represent 95% of the experimental animals (Human Society International,2012) .
The law requires notification of the number of laboratory animals used in research. It also imposes on each
institution to have the committee use and protection of animals, the researchers consult with veterinarians in
the organization they work for and with this committee on any experiments planned to take place on the
animal, and the committees to review to determine whether the use of animals is guaranteed or not, and also
the review of the protocols to see whether it can reduce the use of animals or replaced in order to reduce
suffering. Under the terms of the animal law, Scientists can also perform any action on animals if scientific
justification provided. And they have the commission to make sure researchers study other alternatives on non-
use of animals and search for alternatives and report to the commission on the search result. If alternatives can
not be found, the
“The majority of this testing is for research into finding cures for human diseases, notably AIDS, cancer, and Alzheimer's disease” and “Common factory farming methods include confining animals in small windowless cubicles, feeding animals hormones to improve the flavor and texture of their meat and milk, and limiting exercise and interaction with other animals.” Animals are being used for the benefit of human
The book provides an up-to-date discussion of the current state of development of alternatives to animal testing and is ideal for professionals and academics in the field. It provides alternatives to Animal Testing and the regulatory framework. It provides background information for the research
Approximately 26 million animals are used every year in the United States alone for research and commercial testing (“Background of the Issue” 1). For years, legislators have debated the pros and cons of animal testing, and laws were passed to attempt to fix the inhumane treatment of the cute, innocent testing subjects, the animals. Although the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) was revised numerous times, “the species most commonly used in experiments (mice, rats, birds, fish, reptiles, and amphibians) comprise 99% of all animals in laboratories” and are the animals that are specifically exempted from protection under the act (“Experiments on Animals” 2). A simple fix to animal cruelty during testing is to use alternative methods since human and animal bodies already vary greatly. For years, animal testing was the best option because there was no alternative to testing on a living, whole-body system; however, in the age of technology, there is no reason for millions of animals to be killed due to the severity of the testing. Therefore, animal testing should be banned because alternative methods provide more accurate results since human bodies are very different than animal bodies; furthermore, animal advocacy organizations should promote cruelty-free products more so customers know what to purchase and use.
Ed. Vegan Peace. Wanda Embar, 2008. Web. 12 Nov. 2015. Listing the source for providing animals subject to experimentation, this website gives details procedures and examples of what the animals go through and how badly they are treated. It also gives multiple cases of where animal testing was strictly unreliable and caused great mishap among many communities relying on this treacherousness. This website pinpoints exact companies and their involvement in the controversy whereas other sources would have given a rough idea. It also provides graphic pictures exhibiting the condition of the animals undergoing experimentation which provides a brief over view of the creatures after or during testing. Many alternatives are discussed in this website to assure that there is another option instead of hurting innocent animals in the unreliable task of
There are multiple regulations that cover the ethics of animal testing. The federal agencies that can regulate biomedical research are the Public Health Service (PHS) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), they implement federal regulations through the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC). The PHS base their policy animal subject use on The Health Research Extension Act of 1985. The policy covers living vertebrate animals for PHS supported research, training, or biological testing. (Main agencies included in PHS are the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Food and Drug Administration (FDA), also Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) contains several others as well). The Animal Welfare Act (AWA)
§2143(a) (b) and §2149(b), which are part of the Animal Welfare Act, were enacted so that standards of humane treatment can be given to animals used by research facilities, dealers, and exhibitors. The Animal Welfare Act was passed in 1966 because of the increasing concern about the stealing of dogs and cats for use in research facilities (National Anti-Vivisection Society, 2015).
They experience ongoing mental and physical suffering from the endless boredom, confinement, fear, and emotional stress of daily laboratory life. Add to this the fear and agony of a procedure, and only then can we start to understand the desperation and pain in which they live, every day—and for most, for their entire lives. The Animal Welfare Act (AWA) is the only federal law that provides even minimal protection for animals in laboratories. (The federal Public Health Service's (PHS) Policy on the Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals covers animals in NIH-funded research, but the PHS does not conduct inspections itself. Instead, it relies on institutions to inspect their own labs.) However, it specifically excludes rats, mice, and birds bred for research, who constitute 90-95 percent of animals in labs. For the approximately 10 percent of warm-blooded animals in labs who are covered under the AWA, the law covers husbandry only—meaning specific standards for their housing, feeding, and handling, including veterinary care. It does not prohibit any kind of experiment regardless of the amount of pain or distress it might cause. Instead, it requires oversight committees (called Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees, or IACUCs) to review and
There is much debate over whether animal testing should be allowed or not. Some people think that it is not essential to sacrifice animals for human benefits because they are being abused and tortured severely during experiments. Some others who stand against animal testing claim that humans eliminate many lives on earth in order to safe humans’ lives, so there is no justice because even animals have the right to live on earth, yet these people do not consider the truth that animals are being used in the food industry or in the laboratories. Thus, if someone asks how many animals are being used in the laboratory experiments around the world every year, who can give an accurate answer? It can be one, ten, or fifty million. It is difficult to find the exact figure on this question because people only read news through mass media such as having a new vaccine which can help human avoid uterus cancer or a new medicine help humans cure strokes, but they also need to know how many lives of the animals would have to take in order to get theses vaccines. Therefore, some organizes think that animal testing is one of the most disturbing experiments ever, and it should be banned. Despite many controversies with opposing opinions, a compromise can be made in order to reduce the use of animals in the laboratory experiments.
The project, the individual and the institution must all have spate licences from the home office if animals are to be used in research. The institutional Licence application is very important as there are many things to take into account. The institution must show that any animal used or intended for use in a procedure shall be provided with accommodation and an environment with at least a small amount of freedom for movement, food, water and care to keep it healthy. ASPA details minimum requirements for this to ensure animals are not put under any unnecessary stress or harm. Although some researchers may say this is not absolutely necessary, it is in fact in their best interest to keep animals as healthy as possible as it will improve the reliability of any results that come from the procedures performed (Home Office,
The Animal Welfare Act (AWA) is the only federal law that gives protection to warm -blooded animals in research laboratories. Under this law, it is the researchers’ job to make sure that they provide these animals pain relievers, provide them with the best veterinary care, housing, and food. This law only protects ten percent of the lab animals. The rest of the ninety percent of animals in labs aren’t protected: rats, mice and birds. This means legally the researchers do not have to provide these unprotected lab animals with decent care at all. Researchers can choose to treat these unprotected animals however they want and with as many rats, mice and birds as they please. Knowing how unfair the Welfare Act is towards the many lab animals it should be protecting, the voters should inform and show concern to their legislators in order to stop the mistreatment of these animals. The Animal Welfare Act should protect all animals being tested in research laboratories.
Every research laboratory is required to have an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, consisting of research experts, licensed vets and members of the public. This committee is in charge of reviewing and accepting the use of animals. They are also in charge of watching the care and use of those animals by studying the laboratories, keeping track of the programs and responding to any additional concerns.
Animal experimentation by scientists can be cruel and unjust, but at the same time it can provide long term benefits for humanity. Animals used in research and experiments have been going on for 2,000 years and keep is going strong. It is a widely debated about topic all over the world. Some say it is inhuman while others say it’s for the good of human kind. There are many different reasons why people perform experiments and why others total disagree with it.
Animal research today cannot be carried out without extreme regulations and laws put in place to protect the animals used. Laboratories will follow the local state laws