Essay on Applying Psychological Theories to Board Games

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Punishment under the operant conditionings refers to the usage of positive or negative reinforcements in increasing certain behaviour or reducing or eliminates an unwanted behaviour. The two types of punishments are positive punishment and negative punishment according to B.F. Skinner (Skinner, 1974). Positive punishment is done by applying an aversive stimulus after the occurrence of behaviour. For an example, the player will be given the safety card, where the players are allowed to keep the safety card to void their punishment in the coming turns. By giving a safety card, it is a positive punishment as the player is not really required to perform any punishment act (Gershoff, 2002). On the other hand, negative punishment is known …show more content…

, 1913). Plato has proposed the classical categorization who firstly introduced the grouping of things based on their similar characteristics. At the same time, Aristotle begins using the classical categorization on living objects and begins categorization between human beings and animals, as well as walking and flying animals (Bandura A., 1977). In this board game, a player can do their own classical categorization by grouping the other players according to their age, gender and occupation. This could be useful for the player to assess the different capabilities of other players based on the classical categorization. Analogical reasoning is a way to process information that does a comparison on the similarities between concepts which are either new or understood. This is also known as a type of inductive reasoning because the reasoning will strive to give understanding of what could be true, other than merely proving it as a fact. This reasoning can be either used by adults or children alike as a persuasive argument (Bargh, 1996). One of the simplest ways to inductive reasoning which two or more objects are the same characteristics and can be concluded as these objects are most probably similar in future. However, we must bear in mind that not all analogy can be considered as an analogy, thus, we usually does comparison to illustrate or explain our meaning better (Skinner, 1974). In this board game, the player can undergo inductive

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