Architecture’s Importance as a Public Art in Modern Day Society. When people hear the word “architecture” people think of enormous structures in cities that are hundreds, and sometimes thousands of feet tall. Others may think of quaint buildings that are in rural England. In this paper I will mainly be referring to commercial building inside of major cities. However, this does not mean that all ideas that I present are limited to those buildings. All buildings serve as public art in their own way, and I believe that architecture is the most important form. Many people know that art has the ability to affect one’s mood—whether it is by music, photography, or painting. One thing people do not realize is that architecture can have the same effect. “In 2007 Joan Meyers-Levy, a professor of marketing at the University of Minnesota, reported that the height of a room’s ceiling affects how people think.” (Anthes 2) In this study, Meyers assigns one hundred people to a room; one with a ten-foot ceiling, and the other with an eight-foot ceiling. She then asks the participants to put ten sports into categories. The participants that were assigned the taller ceiling room came up with more abstract categories to group the sports in. While the participants assigned the lower ceiling height room came up with very concrete categories. In the 1950s, prizewinning biologist and doctor Jonas Salk was working on a cure for polio while in a dark basement laboratory. His progress was quite
Positioned alongside Central Park in the heart of New York City, The Metropolitan Museum of Art is one of the largest and most influential art museums in the world. The Met houses an extensive collection of curated works that spans throughout various time periods and different cultures. The context of museum, especially one as influential as the Met, inherently predisposes its visitors to a certain set of understandings that subtly influence how they interpret and ultimately construct meanings about each individual object within the museum. Brent Plate in Religion, Art, and Visual Culture argues that “objects obtain different meanings in different locations and historical settings.”An object placed on display behind a glass case inside a museum would hold a vastly different meaning if it was put on sale by a street vendor, like the ones who set up their tables in close proximity to the Met. The different meanings that objects are able to obtain is attributed to the relationships that are established between the object itself and the environment that surrounds it. These relationships often involve the kind of audience that a museum attracts, where the work is exhibited, and how the exhibits within a museum is planned out. Museums subsequently have the ability to control how these relationships are established which influences the way a viewer is able to construct meaning. When a visitor observes an object on display at the Met, they instinctively construct a certain set of
He knew that Polio caused paralysis, and invaded the nervous system. As a result, he wanted to end the greatest epidemic in America at that time. As he began researching, the president of the March of Dimes Foundation, Basal O’Connor, wanted to help Salk create the Polio vaccination. His goal was to fund Salk to find a cure against Paralytic Poliomyelitis, or Polio. Jonas devoted the next 8 years of his life working to develop the vaccine. He finally was able to create the vaccine, using formaldehyde, or a chemical compound. Salk used the killed Polio virus to immunize without being infected, or becoming infected after the injection. Soon after the vaccine was created, they began to test it on monkeys; and then they tested it on children who already had Polio at the Watson Institute. After that trial was done, the testing spread to volunteers who wanted the vaccine; this included Jonas, his wife, and his family. By 1954, national testing began on children between the ages of 6-9. On April 12, 1955, they were able to conclude that the vaccine was safe and effective. Salk became known as a miracle worker, although he remained selfless. Jonas wanted no major payment, or recognition for the creation of the vaccine. In fact, he credited that the vaccine creation was accomplished due to the help of John Enders, a Harvard researcher. Enders was the man
With a substantial amount of preventive healthcare advancements behind them, the American medical community turned its attention to the deadly polio virus plaguing America. From 1937 to 1952, known cases of Americans contracting polio skyrocketed from ten thousand to a staggering figure of roughly fifty-seven thousand cases. Of those cases within that time period, approximately one thousand five hundred deaths as a result of polio were recorded. In the year 1953, The National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis provided the scientist Dr. Jonas Salk with the tools necessary to research, and develop a working vaccine to combat the devastating polio disease. After much trial and error, Dr. Salk was finally able to create what he felt was a successful polio vaccination, and proceeded to conduct a field test. After resounding success, manufacturing instructions for the Salk vaccine were sent to a series of scientific laboratories for immediate production and administration to American children. The disaster that occurred next will forever be known through American medical history as the Cutter Incident (named so after one of the labs that administered the polio vaccine). This medical crisis sent shockwaves throughout America and the medical community, and numerous lawsuits were filed against Cutter Laboratories, resulting in fewer and fewer labs willing to accept contract work in developing vaccines.
Polio had already killed 3,000 people at its peak rate in 1952; sadly, it had already paralyzed thousands of more people (Soylent 1)On April 12, 1955 the polio vaccine developed by Salk was allowed to be used by the public after it had been tested with 1.8 million children (Biography 1). The vaccine had drastically reduced the number of polio cases in children by 90%; 57,000 cases were recorded in 1952 and less than one thousand cases a decade later (Soylent 1). In addition, Jonas Salk later established his own institution for research named Salk Center for Biological Studies in 1963. The institution “remains one of the world's most prestigious facilities for research into AIDS, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's
Jeffrey Kluger is a number one New York Times bestseller for his coauthoring of Apollo 13, but Splendid Solution: Jonas Salk and the Conquest of Polio, much like the name suggests, is the story of Jonas Salk and his great contribution to society with the polio vaccine. Kluger walks through Jonas Salk’s life starting with his father and mother, what they did, how they lived, and where they were from. Kluger transitions into Salk’s childhood and his serious nature. Kluger states: “Salk was…a serious boy, troubled by sometimes curious things. Rules seemed to grate him the most. Not that he didn’t expect a good rule when he came across one.” (25). Kluger flows well into talking about Salk’s education, Salk meeting his wife, them getting married, and all places that Salk worked in the different aspects of his life. Kluger does add bits and pieces of Basil O’Conner’s and Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s lives, in relation to polio and Jonas Salk’s life at that point in his career. Kluger goes into some detail about Salk’s creation of the influenza vaccine, but his main focus was on the polio vaccine. Salk used some of the techniques he learned from creating the flu vaccine and applied them to the polio vaccine. Some of those techniques worked, while others did not. Kluger goes into a lot of detail into Salk getting started working on the polio vaccine and who funded his research. There was
In 1947, the NFIP was looking for someone capable in researching a polio vaccine, and there was no candidate better for this research than Dr. Jonas Salk.7P Salk was a very experienced researcher; he played a crucial role in the development of influenza vaccines during World War II, and also had a deep understanding of the immune system and antibodies.8B Additionally, Salk also worked to treat multiple sclerosis, cancer, and HIV.9C Together, in the 8 years that followed after recruitment, Salk and the NFIP would take a stand against polio by successfully trying to put an end to polio through the use of
Salk used a vaccine that was called a non-infectious or, “ a killed virus” vaccine. Jonas’s method was called tissue-culture. Tissue-culture was the process of injecting a child or adult with the virus and attempting to come up with a way to deactivate the virus, without harming or injuring the patient in the process. Although technology has taken over, Salk found a way to cure diseases without using technology. He was able to find a cure in less than 5 years which successfully worked. Salk tested the cure out on his wife, and their 3 sons. The amount of polio cases dramatically dropped from 28,985 in 1955 to 5,894 in 1957. He had a huge impact on our worlds death rates. Soon after his research for Aids, Salk died, but his method of vaccinations
The human body is the ultimate tool for discovering the environment. Human anatomy is considered to be nature’s peak of perfection and certain features serve as inspiration for many architects. To study the relationship between the human body and architecture, one must not be limited to human body parts resemblance to architectural works but to a larger extent consider human emotions, sensory nerves, the mind and general human psychology. In essence everything that makes us human. In its simplest definition Architecture can be described as an art or practice of designing buildings. It is practiced in a way that accomplishes both practical and communicative or expressive requirements. To relate it to human body then Architecture can widely define the place, the site, the energy, the systems, the building, the flora and fauna. These components that bring aesthetic property to humanity apart from the utilitarian purpose it serves. The perfect balance of a normal human body and the proportions are incorporated into architecture from a point of view of imitation, idealized allusion and the actual human use. Evidence of such human incorporation into architecture is seen from the Ancient Greek Architectures where it was common for tower columns to take shape of a human being like in the colossus of the Ancient
Jonas salk invented the IPV vaccine. He was born October 28, 1914 to Russian parents. His parents had no education but wanted him to be successful so they encouraged him to work hard. “In 1939 he received a Medical Degree from New York University College of Medicine. In 1942 he joined one of his professors at the University of Michigan School of Public Health” (Petersen, Jennifer B). Jonas and his professor developed vaccine for influenza, which was Salk’s first invention. Then he traveled to Pittsburgh and became a Professor. There, he also became head of the virus research lab. He worked on a vaccine there. He used the killed virus to prevent people from contracting it. On July 2, 1952 he vaccinated 42 children who did not have polio and his trials succeeded. On April 12, 1955 Salk vaccinate 1.8 million children and right after he announced that his trial were effective and that the vaccine works (Petersen, Jennifer B).
This book was written by Juhani Pallasmaa with regard to ‘Polemics’, on issues that were part of the architecture discourse of the time, i.e. 1995. It is also an extending of ideas expressed in an essay entitled “Architecture of the seven senses” published in 1994.
There is often some confusion when people start talking about the post-modernism and modernism in architecture in terms of their philosophical terminology differences. Modern architecture is known for its minimalism (Linder, 2004); buildings were functional and economical rather than comfortable and beautifully decorated. The post-modernism architecture, however, is called a “neo-eclectic, significantly assuming the role of a regeneration of period styles for designing houses, and a never-ending variety of forms and characteristics, asymmetrical designs for commercial buildings” (Fullerton Heritage, 2008). An example of these two polar opposites, “Less is more” made by Mies van der Rohe in 1928 (Blake, 1976) and "Less is a bore" made by
Architecture is often mistaken as purely an art form, when in actually it is where art and engineering or art and practicality meet. For example, painting is an art, when preformed well it yields a beautiful picture that evokes a deep human reaction and brings pleasure to its viewer, however this painting provides no function, it cannot shield us from the rain or protect us from the wind or snow, it is purely form. An insulated aluminum shed provides shelter and protection from Mother Nature; however, it is a purely functional building, it was drawn by an engineer, not conceived by an artist to have form. The culmination of form and function is Architecture, the Greeks and Romans fathered this idea and Palladio’s study of roman architecture taught him his valuable truth.
Different architects have different styles because they are trying to get at different things. Architecture is not just about making something beautiful anymore, it is about trying to get across a set of ideas about how we inhabit space. Two of the most famous architects of the twentieth century, one from each side, the early part and the later part up until today each designed a museum with money donated by the Guggenheim foundation. One of these is in New York City, it was designed by Frank Lloyd Wright. The other is in bilbao, Spain, and it was designed by Frank Geary. My purpose of this paper is to interrogate each of these buildings, glorious for different reasons, to show how each architect was expressing their own style.
“Any drawn line that speaks about identity, dignity, and unity is art,” (Chaz Bojorquey) is a statement that I agree with. Art is perceived differently from all people based on their culture, religion, personal taste, and many other factors. I believe that as long as what has been created is meaningful to either the creator or even to somebody that is viewing it, it should be considered art. Art in the public is a very controversial subject that brings up the important question of, “Should public art be considered as real art,” personally I think that it should be. I believe that the difference between art that is placed in a gallery and art that is visible by a community is the fact that what is acceptable in a gallery
Coming to terms with modern architecture, we must read through such seminal statements through their sensibilities and societal myths which they exemplify. Now, we shall explore parallel themes to do with new myths of modernity, poetic expressions of technology, the reemergence of abstraction, and analogies between architecture and other realms such as minimalist sculpture, landscape art and nature.