Dry eye is a disorder of the precorneal tear film due to tear deficiency or excessive evaporation which causes damage to the interpalpebral ocular surface and is associated with symptoms of ocular discomfort. The causes of dry eye include defect in the tear film (aqueous layer, mucin layer and lipid layer), lid surface abnormalities and epithelial defects.
Most ocular diseases are treated with topical application of eye drops. After instillation of an eye drop, typically less than 5% of the applied drug penetrates the cornea and reaches intraocular tissues, while a major fraction of the instilled dose is absorbed and enters the systemic circulation. As ocular efficiency of topically applied drugs is influenced by the corneal contact time, most common method of improving ocular availability of drugs is to increase pre-corneal residence time by using vesicular system and hydrogel. One such approach to improve bioavailability of drug is the use of in-situ gelling system, which gets converted from sol-to-gel as a result of change in pH. By using Carbopol940 – a pH sensitive gelling agent, an
Methods: All patients admitted to an acute hospital in the North West of England with ocular diagnoses requiring regular long term eye drops were identified. The first patient cohort comprised those patients admitted between August 1st and December 31st 2014; following staff education on ocular medication, the study was repeated for those patients admitted between August 1st and September 30th 2015. Inpatient drug charts were analysed retrospectively to assess the quality of prescribing. Comparison of ophthalmic and non-ophthalmic prescriptions was done using the χ 2 test.
An optamaligist known as Dr. Ralph Chu and Dr. Rex Hamilton have made some ground breaking discoveries in helping to prevent fading close up vision. They have made an amazing eye plant called the rain drop. The rain drop helps with reshaping the cornea so it can focus better and faster. One of the most important ways it helps people with close up vision is to be able to read better. According to Dr. Ralph Chu, “this is one of the most significant advances in apthomology in 20 years. The reason why it is so important is because it can remove the need for reading glasses in anyone that affected by presbyopia also known as the aging eye. The lenses costs 4000$ to get implanted are not covered by insurance.
Amblyopia is a common visual disorder that caused by abnormal neural development in the childhood usually due to anisometropia, strabismus, cataract or combination of them. Amblyopia leads to many monocular and binocular problems with the affected eye such as impaired visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, motion perception, excessive crowding and impaired or absence of stereopsis. In critical period the visual acuity deficit linked with amblyopia can be treated monocularly by correcting the refractive error using glasses and then encourage use of the amblyopic eye either by occluding (patching) or punishment (with atropine cycloplegia) the non-amblyopic eye. They are effective method but residual monocular and binocular visual impairments may remain after patching and/or atropine therapy. Treatment of teenager and adult is something argumentatively. Study shows that conventional treatment can be effective in teenager and using techniques such as monocular perceptual learning may improve the visual function in adults with
According to HealthLand, up to 90% young adults in major Asian countries (China, Taiwan, Japan) are nearsighted. But guess what? According to A Day Of The Internet, there are only 27.5% of people in Asia have been using network. Although in North America, there are 78.6% of people have been using internet before, but according to Vision and Ageing Lab, there are only 25% of people are nearsighted in North America. After all, what is the major cause of myopia? For kids, the main cause of myopia is over reading and learning. According to Ian Morgan’s experiment in Asia, they found out sunlight can let human’s body produce more dopamine to prevent myopia. In Asia, student’s pressure of school works are great, so they don’t have enough time to play under the sun and get enough sunlight, that is what cause them get myopia. Unless those people who are internet addiction patients, internet may let them get myopia because over focusing on internet may let them cut back the time they play outside, but that does not means people should stop using internet. They should control and make a plan about how long they can spend their time on
Dry eye is a chronic and progressive disease of the ocular surface that affects 30% of the worldwide, aging population.1 According to the 2007 International Dry Eye Workshop (DEWS), dry eye is defined as a multifactorial disease that results in symptoms of discomfort, visual disturbance, and tear film instability.2 Risk factors include, but are not limited to: female gender, age, contact lens wear, systemic disease, use of medications and refractive surgery. Dry eye is an umbrella term encompassing the two most common etiological categories: aqueous deficient dry eye and evaporative dry eye. Both are diagnosed based on patient signs and symptoms. While there is no definitive diagnostic test to classify dry eye, multiple factors can be taken into consideration to provide a diagnosis. With that, adequate treatment and management of the disease can be prescribed. The following case report is an overview of current diagnostic techniques and treatments.
Our eyes are more than the windows to our souls, they are vital to everything we do from the time we wake up until the time we go to sleep. But, our eyes are under constant assault from environmental pollutants, free radicals, and all the hours we spend on viewing computer screens, iPads, and iPhones. The results of our daily living conditions can manifest into eye fatigue, weakening eyesight, and poor night vision. Rather than continuing to buy eyeglasses or contacts with ever changing lenses, there are all natural health supplements that can help you maintain normal eyesight and help you improve your eyesight.
A 37 year old man presented with insidious onset painless progressive diminution of vision in his right eye of 05 months duration. There was no associated history of prior ocular disease, ocular trauma or any systemic illness. His decimal best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 0.05 OD and 1.0 OS. On retinoscopy simple hypermetropia of +1.25 DS OD and +1.50 DS OS was noted. Anterior segment examination
The simplest but very effective eye care routine you can follow is to irrigate your eyes with fresh and pure water while bathing. Fill your mouth with water and using the running tap water splash gently the open eyes with small amount of water in your palms. Do it repeatedly till the water in your mouth tends to loose its coolness. Release the water of your mouth and after a short break for few second repeat the process twice. This procedure as per Ayurveda cleanses the eyes, protects it from the onslaught of kapha and increases vision.
A 74-year-old Caucasian female presented to the Queensland University of Technology optometry clinic as a new patient, following self-referral. She presented with a complaint of ‘blank areas when reading’, of approximately 4 months duration. Past ocular history included bilateral cataract removal 10 years ago (by an overseas ophthalmologist). She was diagnosed with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (Type 2) 30 years ago and reported unstable management with metformin. Current blood pressure is 144/82mmHg, showing good control of her hypertension
This patient was subsequently seen on 8 occasions (over 3 decades) and, with time, the initially normal eye (OD) gradually showed signs of RP-like retinal degeneration. The purpose of this study was to evaluate which clinical modality (visual field, funduscopy or electroretinography) could have first predicted this fate. Design: Long-term longitudinal study. Subjects: 155 control subjects and this unique RP patient. Methods: Normative data was compared with the results from the patient for each modality. Z-tests were used to assess the statistical significance for each test and time point. Linear regressions were used to assess the rates of changes in both eyes. Main outcome measures: Visual field areas, retinal blood vessel diameters, amplitude and energy (wavelet analysis) of scotopic and photopic ERGs, time to reach significant outcome (in years) and rate of change. Results: At the initial visit, all tests were significantly altered (p<0.05) faster in OD. Overall (i.e. average of all the rates of change assessed), the ERG parameters degenerated 4.53 times faster in OD than OS. The progressive retinal degeneration associated with RP is known to usually cause an exponential decay (where the risk of cell death remains more or less constant or decreases
An Epidemiological approach in partial fulfillment of the requirement of the award of OD (Doctor of Optometry).