Terrorism Experience is an independent variable representing the depth of proficiency, knowledge, best practices and insights that corporations, who were directly impacted by a specific terrorist incident, acquire from coping with the effects of terrorism. The Terrorism Experience is measured in terms of the cumulative number of terrorism incidents that directly affected the firm. The number of attack incidents on a firm is a Traditional type of terrorism measurement as categorized by Frey et al. (2007) in Table 2. The data source for measuring the Terrorism Experience independent variable is the counts of the Event Identification Number, representing the year, month and day of the terrorist incident from GTD (2015), as shown in Table 3.
The Experience in Risky Countries independent variable is the experiential learning, understanding and practices acquired from operating in risky countries where the discontinuous risk of jolts, disruptions sudden shocks to natural and unnatural catastrophes and violent conflicts such as terrorist attacks (Oetzel & Oh, 2013) is high. While the Terrorism Experience independent variable accounts for depth of experience acquired by the firm directly affected by terrorism, the Experience in Risky Countries independent variable captures the breadth of experience acquired from both direct and indirect exposure to terrorism as well as other types of violent conflicts, dangers, hazardous and discontinuous risks. As previously mentioned, a risky
Click here to unlock this and over one million essaysGet Access
Terrorism continues devastatingly in the United States to this day and has increasingly become a more major concern. Starting in 1886 with the Haymarket Affair, a bombing that killed 12 in Chicago, there has been an exponential increase in the amount of terrorist attacks since then. The 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center was a preface to many other terrorist attacks to follow, for example, 9/11. The destruction of this attack gave the United States a reason to fear more massacres and allowed us to increase security and protection of our nation. The biggest terrorist attack in the United States to this day is the 9/11 plane attack on the World Trade Center Towers that killed close to three thousand innocent citizens. What many people do
The September 11 attacks were set of four terrorist attacks controlled by al-Qaeda, an Islamic terrorist group. On September 11, 2001, four aircrafts were hijacked by the terrorists; two of the planes hit Twin towers in New York, third hit the Pentagon and the fourth one crashed into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania (“9/11 Attacks”). The September 11 attacks had several long-term negative effects that include Social effects, Psychological effects, Physical health effects, Economic effects and many more. But of all those effects, Economic effects were the most suffered ones. The 9/11 attacks triggered the devastation of American economy (Miley). Although it has been 12 years since the episode and America has recovered a lot, American
On September 11th, 2001, a series of terrorist attacks overwhelmed the United States citizens in many forms. According to Villemez “After September 11, Americans lived in the shadow of terrorism which united in fear” (2011). The attack led to advanced technology, public depression and more security with more fear in our daily lives. The tragedy of nine-eleven exposed our generation and generations to come with constant fear and living with paranoia . The attacks were categorized on a whole new level. The events of September 11th by far has the largest amount of American lives loss on American soil caused by a foreign terrorist group called Al-Qaeda.
Terrorism is a frightening reality that all people in today’s world must face. While some areas of the world are facing terrorism more than others nearly are regions and all people are facing the violence and devastating effects of terrorism in one form or another.
Throughout the world, terrorism affects cultures in a myriad of ways. The United States Department of Defense defines terrorism as, “ the calculated use of violence or the threat of violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological” (DOD). Terrorism has emerged in the last ten years as one of the most crucial issues governments attempt to tackle. Many movies and documents can help people better understand the major strain of terrorism. As seen by the effects of the September eleventh attacks on American security, tourism and economy, the Taliban, and Somali piracy, terrorism has had an utmost impact on the world.
In the mid 1990’s, acts of terrorism were becoming a constant theme within the United States. Attacks like the bombing of the World Trade Center in New York City on February 1993, which caused six causalities
To recent times, terrorism has taken a different purpose. Todays terrorism is religiously based. One of the most significant events that has occurred on the United Stated is the attacks of September 11th. These attacks have lead to groups, such as al Qaeda, to bring light to what their goal is, which is trans- or supra-national Islamic rule (Hoffman 2014). Al Qaeda has described their own seven-stage victory, which the final stage states their goal is to triumph over the rest of the world by 2020 (Hoffman 2014). For many of the attacks following September 11th, al Qaeda has shown their seven-stage victory has slowly become true, not only within the United States, but throughout the world. In 2004, attacks on commuter rail bombings in Madrid killed 191 individuals. The following year, suicide bombers on several busses in London, killing 52 people and several other plots that were never followed through with.
Research into terrorism is another challenge in defining terrorism. According to James Rinehart, “those who write about terrorism, tend to possess a preconceived bias of a ‘problem-solution’ orientation in which he or she is simply attempting to justify a set of counterterrorist prescriptive” (4). This research is unreliable at best because as mentioned previously, preconceived biases and stereotypes tend to become involved. Furthermore, there is little research into the why of terrorism, and also very little research into the psychology of terrorists by actual psychologists. The scarcity of primary, first-hand research and due to the private nature of data that is out there, the challenge to defining
On September 11, 2001, a catastrophic event occurred in New York City (‘’9/11 attacks”). The nineteen Islamic terrorists from Saudi Arabia hijacked four airliners. The Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City and part of the Pentagon in Washington, D.C was destroyed (“9/11 attacks”). These terrorist attacks caused approximately 3000 deaths, and it also impacted how the United States handled terrorism and airport security (“9/11 attacks”).
Throughout the world many terrorist attacks happen in the different communities. Looking into the suprise everyone got on septemeber 2001, the twin towers in NYC got attacked. The attacks caused major devastating results leaving most residents with fear for their lives friends, and loved ones. Gary Lafree, who is from maryland and is “the national consortium for the study of terrorism. As Gary Lafree once said, “because 9/11 has become the very symbol for terrorism, we tend to think of all terrorist attacks as being similar. Some of the effects of 9/11 are the emotional effect which changed economics and the view on terrorism.
Domestic terrorism consists of violations against federal and state law that put humans into danger. The purpose of domestic terrorism is to influence or to instill fear into the population and government. Terrorism comes in forms of gun violence, assassinations, and destruction (1). Since 1970, there have been 2,608 attacks and 226 fatal attacks up until 2011 (3). In 1867, the development of dynamite contributed to increasing terrorism, and radicals have used explosives to bring attention to political issues within the country. This invention led to the Haymarket Affair, Los Angeles Times, and the Preparedness Day bombings (2). What has further caused domestic terrorism has been the argument over who is an American. This explains the emergence of the Boston Tea Party and the “white supremacy” of the Ku Klux Klan which both occurred to claim what being an authentic American means (3). After the Cold war, domestic intelligence and law enforcement suppressed terrorist plots, but since the leader of al-Qaeda increased website usage in 2003, more internet terrorist sites have grown. In 2009, the FBI stated that there were approximately 15,000 websites that advocated terrorism with 10,000 sites still active on 80% of U.S based servers. (4) An example of an attack was the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995 which resulted in 168 people dead and 600 people injured; the motivation for this was to show the opposition against the U.S government by bombing the Alfred P. Murrah Federal
A complex phenomenon, terrorism rarely has a “one size fits all” solution. Rather, “effective responses to terrorism may need to take into account, and to some degree be individually configured to respond to, the evolving goals, strategies, tactics and operating environment of different terrorist groups” (Perl, 2007, p. i). Indeed, taking an individual approach to measuring effectiveness could be both time consuming and confusing. However, by taking a look at the problem as a whole, some commonalities do exist. For example, in his CRS report, Perl (2007) notes that the impact on society, “[b]oth material and psychological impact beyond a critical threshold, such as disruption of the banking system, or establishment of such pervasive fear that key civil liberties or moral principles underlying the national identity are set aside by the government in the interests of security” (p. 8), could possibly be used as a measure of effectiveness. How quickly we recover from a terrorist attack (measured in days) or our reaction to it (i.e. restrictive or oppressive policy) could be an indicator of how effective our counterterrorism strategy is. For example, a robust counterterrorism strategy may result in limited, small scale attacks that require mere days to recover from, the Boston Marathon for example, as opposed to the complex, large scale attacks we
For a more robust test of the relationships, we conducted a series of stepped logit regressions, the first of which are summarized in Table 8, Analyses 1 and 2. Analysis 1 looks at the relationship between Terrorism Exposure and Firm Performance Resistance, with Time Since Last Attack as a moderating variable. Analysis 2 looks at the relationship between Terrorism Exposure and Firm Performance Resistance, with Business Continuity Plan as a moderating variable. The overall percentage shown in the model summary (Overall %) is the predicted percentage of firms that would have the outcome of resistance (coded as 1) to the focal terrorist attack – meaning that the stock price did not drop by 0.5% or more. Finally, the Nagelkerke R squared and the statistical significance (Model