Attention-Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder, ADHD, has become a topic of debate amongst psychologist, and doctors throughout the years. Withstanding its questionable beginnings and maintaining its place in the DSM-V, ADHD has become one of the most commonly diagnosed disorders in children today. ADHD is believed to have first been mentioned as a disorder in children during the early 1900’s. It had been described as an “abnormal defect of moral control”, a problem with the child’s ability to control their behavior that did not interfere with their intelligence, by Sir George Still (Holland Web). It was, however, not until the second edition of the DSM that a disorder resembling today’s ADHD diagnosis appeared. “Hyperkinetic reaction of …show more content…
A predominantly inattentive child will have a harder time paying attention to detail, completing tasks, remembering routine and staying focused. A child demonstrating more symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsive behavior will struggle being still, will be visibly more restless, impatient, and fidget a lot. If enough symptoms of both types are present, the child can be diagnosed with combined type (Facts Web). The symptoms of ADHD can change over time, and the presentation of ADHD a child was diagnosed with can also change. Due to the fluidity of the ADHD diagnosis, the validity in ADHD’s presence has been up for debate. However, ADHD is a neurobiological disorder. There is proof of its biological origins. Through various imaging studies, researchers have been able to determine various areas of the brain that are different in children with ADHD. The caudate nucleus and globus pallidus, areas highly concentrated with DA receptors, the posterior brain, and areas involved in coordinating activities are all smaller in children with ADHD. Specific genes are also being identified in association with ADHD, including: mutations in the human thyroid receptor gene on chromosome 3, DAT on chromosome 5, and DRD4 on chromosome 11. ADHD’s connection to DAT and DRD4 also support findings that deficiency in dopamine lead to a diagnosis of ADHD. The non-genetic causes of ADHD are also
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Over the past couple of decades there has been a huge increase in the diagnosis and prescriptions given out for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. According to a news report done by USA Today over the past five years use of ADHD medications have risen 40% totaling 39.5 million individual prescriptions ("New findings," 2009). When statistics like this are seen it is only normal for someone to ask questions. People are becoming curious about the legitimacy of the disorder, and whether or not the treatments being given to individuals are appropriate. The argument seems to be strong on both sides of the fence, but the extensive research done on ADHD leaves it hard for one to believe that it is a made up disorder.
As children we were used to jump around and ask a lot of question and be careless. Being hyper, curios, and talkative is part of the definition of the term childhood. Most children enjoy doing these activities, and about 15-20 years ago, it was very normal for a child to be hyperactive or talkative. However, nowadays, these behaviors may suggest a very serious condition. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a very usual childhood disorder, which can continue even through the adolescence and adulthood if left untreated. Symptoms of this disorder are very similar to what we defined as childhood behaviors but in a more obvious or harmful manner. Symptoms include lack of focus and attention, difficulty controlling behaviors, and hyperactivity. Children with ADHD can be defiant, socially inept, or aggressive. Also, adults with this condition have trouble getting organized, staying focused, and not thinking before acting. Moreover, They can be noisy, fidgety, and unable to adapt to any new situation. In this paper, I am going to discuss different types of ADHD, possible reasons for this condition, details about its symptoms, diagnosis, treatment methods, and possible flaws of this disorder.
The evaluation of ADHD from a clinician standpoint is that ADHD is a disorder. ADHD stands for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Disorders occur from childhood to adulthood and with treatments for daily interactions, improvement of ADHD symptoms occur as a child ages and reaches adulthood. Disorders evaluated, by the following persons; behavioral neurologist, psychiatrist, clinical or educational psychologist, nurse practitioner, or clinical social worker. Genetics linked to ADHD, with additional research and study of other possible causes and risk factors, which may cause concern is publicized. Researchers suggest, that ADHD runs in families because of genetics or external factors due to smoking or
Historically, there are records of disorders that are similar to ADHD as early as the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder was known by a variety of names during the 20th century including: Encephalitis Lethargica, Minimal Brain Damage, Minimal Cerebral Palsy, Mild Retardation, Minimal Brain Dysfunction, Hyper-kinesis, Atypical Ego Development, and Attention Deficit Disorder, otherwise known as ADD (Rafalovich). The most commonly talked about starting point of the history of ADHD starts with lectures called the Goulstonian lectures, given by George Frederic Still in 1902. He observed children who were experiencing severe problems with sustained attention and self-regulation, who were often aggressive, defiant, and resistant to discipline, excessively emotional or passionate, who showed little inhibitory volition, and could not learn from the consequences of their actions
It is widely agreed that ADHD is over diagnosed. According to the study, only 22 percent of 92 children referred to an ADHD clinic actually met the criteria. Furthermore, numerous arguments would urge the general public and the medical community that what has been proven is a large varying degree of severity of the condition. In turn, the symptoms may be expressed in every person, only with varying intensity. Although no conclusive evidence is currently available to prove the existence of the genetic disorder, no concrete evidence dispels its existence either. Still, the fact that the disorder has passed through a crowd of names, including organic drivenness, hyperkinetic syndrome, attention-deficit disorder and now ADHD provides evidence on
ADHD is a psychological disorder characterized difficulty sitting still, fidgetiness and trouble paying attention. ADHD is usually diagnosed in children while they are still in elementary school. According to the Center of Disease Control and Prevention, approximately 11% of all kids in the US between the ages of 4 and 17 have been diagnosed with ADHD. In recent years, the prevalence of children being diagnosed with ADHD was spiked tremendously. For example, the rates of diagnosis increased by almost 6% per year just from the years 2003-2007. Due to increases in diagnosis, many psychologists have began to question whether or not the increase in ADHD is a true epidemic, or whether it is simply being over diagnosed.
Scientists have begun to study the different causes and risk factors of ADHD to find a better way to manage symptoms and reduce the chances of a child having ADHD. Current research shows that genetics play a large part
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder most commonly diagnosed in children. Children can be diagnosed as early as the age of 7. Boys and girls can be diagnosed with ADHD but this disorder is seen more in the behavior of boys. Adults can also develop symptoms and be diagnosed as well. It was originally called hyperkinetic impulse disorder. In the late 1960s the American Psychiatric Association (APA) recognized ADHD as a mental disorder. ADHD is a neurological disorder that develops during childhood and can persist into adulthood. Although adult ADHD is more
The symptoms of ADHD usually improved with age. First, inattention. A child with inattention does not appear to be listening. The child also does not pay attention and makes careless mistakes, he or she easily distracted, always miss details and forget things. The child will miss details and forget things, is because the child have difficulty focusing on one thing. The child will easily feel bored with a task after doing only for a few minutes, unless the child doing something enjoyable. For example, if the child does not likes to do homework after a few minutes, he or she will give up easily, but if the child likes to play toys, he or she can play for a long period. The child also will have difficulty focusing attention on organizing and completing a task. Next, the child will also have difficulty processing information as quickly and accurately as other children. The child will struggle to follow instructions. Inattention children are often quiet and less likely to act out. They may sit quietly, seeming to work but they are not paying attention to what they are doing. This can be the fact that adults will miss out that the child actually is
Both kids and adults can have ADHD but symptoms always start in childhood. Research shows that ADHD is genetic and that it may be inherited in most cases. Yet, scientist are always looking for currently looking for genes that may cause ADHD. They are also studying for things that may be associated with ADHD. For example, ADHD may be more common with children born prematurely. However, doctors do know that certain parts of the brain are involved with ADHD. Brain chemicals called neurotransmitters play an important role in ADHD. People with low amounts of these may show signs of
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), a neurodevelopmental disorder, is becoming more and more predominant every year throughout the entire world. It is one of the most common disorders that today’s children have. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Rates of ADHD diagnosis increased an average of 3% per year from 1997 to 2006 and an average of approximately 5% per year from 2003 to 2011,” which illustrates that this disorder is becoming a common one to diagnose (CDC, 2015). These percentages prove that ADHD is recognized and treated more than it was a few years ago. Now that children are being diagnosed, doctors, parents, and educators can make the necessary changes to positively affect the child’s daily life.
Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), also known as Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), is a neurodevelopment,1 psychiatric disorder, which is characterized as impairments of the growth and development of the Central Nervous System—particularly the brain.2 An individual diagnosed with ADD exhibits issues with attention, hyperactivity, impulsive behavior, or a combination of all three. 3 Such symptoms are likely observed between ages 6-12 and must persist for over six months prior to imposed diagnosis.4 According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, section 4 (DMV- IV), currently 12% of the American pediatric and young adult populations suffer from one form of ADD.5 Despite ADD prevalence, growing incidence, and being the most studied and diagnosed psychiatric disorder in the pediatric population —several unknowns of the complex condition remain.
The question of the century is: does Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) even exist? Also, if it does exist, are children being over diagnosed or overmedicated? Some believe it is a combination of societal changes and outlooks on behavior and some believe it is due to the booming industry of psychopharmacology and over diagnosis (Hinshaw & Scheffler, 2014). There is no question that this disorder is the number one diagnosis in children today and many people are questioning the credibility of this phenomena. To fully understand the disorder it is important to discuss the history, the controversies that pertain to each side, as well as the treatments that are currently being used today.
ADHD is an abbreviation for attention deficit/hyper activity disorder. It is commonly referred to as a psychiatric disorder in need of therapy. The origination of the disease is in the neuro-physiological brain construct, and the main cause of the disorder is considered to be genetic (Wilson, 2012). Many children with ADHD struggle with impulsivity, hyperactivity, and inattention (Unnever, Cullen, & Pratt, 2003). According to McNamara, Vervaeke, and Willoughby (2008), “attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder is the most commonly diagnosed behavioral disorder among children and adolescents. It affects between 3% and 5% of school age children” (p. 38). In a
“Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a condition affecting children and adults that is characterized by problems with attention, impulsivity, and overactivity” (CHADD). “It is a neurobiological disorder that affect 3-7 percent of school age children and may be seen as before the age of 7. The current diagnostic label is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, however, in the past several other names have been used, such as brain-damaged, minimal brain dysfunction, hyperkinetic impulsive disorder, and attention deficit disorder (CHADD). ADHD is a controversial disorder. Some understand it to be a true disability, while others believe “good teaching and discipline at home resolve the problems” (Kauffman 2005).