Bipolar Disorder And Its Effects

Decent Essays

Bipolar disorder is caused, in part, by factors of nature. In short, bipolar disorder is caused by factors of genetics, heredity, factors that are inherent to who we are. Bipolar disorder (BD) is a “neuropsychiatric disorder…characterized by recurrent episodes of depression and mania or hypomania” (Bavamian et al., 2015. p. 573). The study conducted by Bavamian et. al., asserts that there are in fact microRNAs (miRNAs) which regulate gene expression. In individuals with BD, they expression of miR-34a is increased within the cerebellum (Bavamian et al., 2015. p. 576). miR-34a, a smaller piece of a microRNA family, is shown to be reduced by lithium and valproic acid. These two drugs have been used for long-term treatment of BD (Bavamian et …show more content…

p. 188). Although studies show that it is not always the case that BD is directly inherited from parents, there is a higher chance of mood disorders in the offspring of BD parents. Studies have shown that the environment and stress can cause “changes in gene expression during key developmental periods” (Pishva, 2014. p. 341). These stressors can affect individuals either through the parent during utero (while a baby is developing) or during their lifetime, as an adult. Environmental exposures during early postnatal life have been associated with mental disorders, including bipolar disorder. One example is maternal care. There is an association of maternal care and “hippocampus-related learning and memory processes” (Pishva, 2014. P. 341). The author asserts that environmental influences affect gene expression and behavior. There are many genes and proteins which are interdependent on each other, and if one is affected due to an environmental factor, it affects the other, increasing levels of stress regulator systems, which affect the behaviors of individuals (Pishva, 2014. p. 342). Environmental factors including drug use are also related with BD. This is not to say that the use of drugs can cause BD or other mood disorders, however, the presence of certain disorders and the use of drugs are sometimes connected. For instance, use of methamphetamine is associated with altered expression of major DNA enzyme DNMTI,

Get Access