Summary of ‘Britain’
The country and its people: an introduction for learners of English
Revised and Updated
Author: James O’Driscoll
The chapters which you need to study for the exam are as follows: Chapters 1 – 5, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 20 – 23 plus reader 07 2538 SCC UK: Government and Monarchy
Chapter 1. Country and People
The British Isles lie off the north-west coast of Europe. It consists of two great isles and several much smaller ones.
- Great Britain is the largest Island.
- Ireland is the other large one.
There are two states:
- The Republic of Ireland
- The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The last state mentioned above is more familiar known as:
- ‘the United Kingdom’ or …show more content…
Britain was brought into the mainstream of western European culture. This was the beginning of the English class system. The Normans introduced a strong system of government. During this time Scotland remained independent.
Culturally speaking there were several aspects:
- Middle English and NOT the Norman French had become the dominant language in all classes.
- The Anglo-Saxon concept of common law NOT Roman law formed the basis of the legal system.
- Wales was never settled in great numbers by Saxon or Norman, thus (Celtic) Welsh language remained strong.
- Scotland gradually switched to English language and customs in the lowland.
- In this period Parliament began its gradual evolution into the democratic body which it is today.
The power of the English monarch increased in this period. The strength of the great barons had been greatly weakened by the Wars of the Roses:
The Wars of the Roses = During the 15th century the throne of England was claimed by representatives of 2 rival groups.
Tudor dynasty (1485-1603) – Established a system of government departments. Because of this, the feudal barons were no longer needed.
Parliament consists of:
- House of Lords (feudal aristocracy and the leaders of the Church)
- House of Commons (representatives from the towns and the less important landowners in rural areas)
Reasons for the rise of
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The War of the Roses was a crucial and significant period in the England’s history playing an important role in it. There were many factors which can be seen as the causes of the war. However, it is vital to clarify to what extent its outbreak was caused by Henry’s inadequacies.
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The War of the Roses were a series of Civil Wars from 1455 – 1487, they were fought between the House of York and the House of
There are many known periods that we know lead to the development of the modern era and the Anglo-Saxon period is the oldest known period of time that had a complex culture with stable government, art and literature. This period is a time filled with great advancements and discoveries in government, religion, literature, and art. Cultures of Anglo-Saxon society and modern society have many similarities as well as differences. There are many differences between this period and the modern era we live in today in terms of politics, social climate, values, social hierarchy, the role of women, military, government and language. In this essay, I am going to focus on the differences of the two periods in terms of values, role of women and language in the society.
The first underlying and precipitating cause of the Hundred Years’ War was that England and France were too closely proximate emergent territorial powers. Another cause of the Hundred Years’ War was that Edward III of England was a vassal of Philip the Fair of France, and therefore held several sizeable French territories as fiefs. Also one of the underlying and precipitating causes of the Hundred Years’ was the quarrel between
Rebellions caused a serious threat to monarchs; and as a result of the War of The Roses and Henry VII’s usurpation in 1485, the Tudor Dynasty had effectively been founded on Rebellion so it may be possible to assume that the Tudor Dynasty could be removed by rebellion. The Tudor period can be seen as a time of unrest as each Tudor monarch had at least one rebellion during their reign. The majority of the Tudor rebellions were a significant threat as they attacked the authority of the Crown; suggesting a period of instability throughout the 100 years as each rebellion was a constant
Common law became into effect after the Norman Conquest (A.D. 1066) consolidated their hold on newly won territory. One way was to take control over the legal/court systems. When this happen
“The power of the monarchs of Britain - which I'm taking to mean "of England, then Great Britain and then the United Kingdom" - has waxed and waned over the years.” as reviewed by quora.com
While walking throughout the halls at Fresno State, one may not realize the diversity of culture among the student body. There are many international students that attend Fresno State, and it is more common than students may think. I had the opportunity to interview one of these international students, who traveled very far from her home country in order to attend school in the United States. Esme Gullick, who came to Fresno State in order to pursue her dream of swimming, is now a member of the Fresno State Swim Team, and has traveled 5,245 miles from her hometown of Weston Super-Mare, England. England is located within the United Kingdom, and is also referred to as Great Britain. According to Countries and
It was turbulent times for England during the 17th and 18th century. England was in an unquenchable thirst for more power. “During the 17th and 18th century, England was determined to subdue all lesser countries, especially Ireland” (Stevenson, 28). At the time, England was the dominating country, looking to expand their influence across the world. War broke out constantly as the conquest for more land continued. Moreover, war was constant with the three kingdoms, England, Ireland, and Scotland. Revolts in each kingdom also affected the country’s ability to participate in the war. As
The Wars of the Roses was a series of civil wars in England between the royal Houses of Lancaster and York from 1455-1485. While the Wars have been described by many historians as dynastic, resulting from the Lancastrian usurpation of the throne in 1399 after the death of Richard II, that argument rose up in the 1460s after the Wars had already started. The truth of the matter is that here are multiple reasons for the conflict. First was the administrative failures of the Lancastrian government of King Henry VI that contributed to an already strained English economy mired in war-debt and recession. Second was the public perception of corrupt government officials, particularly the King’s inner circle leading to calls for reform. Finally, there was the rise of aristocratic discord, particularly between Richard, 3rd duke of York, and Edmund Beauford, 4th earl of Somerset.
The Wars of the Roses, fought in England during the 15th century, was a critical juncture in the history of England, as it determined the future of England’s throne. The Wars of the Roses were not just one single conflict, but several (hence the name Wars not War) in England during the later half of the 15th century. The conflict is typically though to stem from the conflicting ambitions of the York and Lancaster families to control the English throne. The notion that The Wars of the Roses were a power struggle over the English throne is an obvious one to come to. Given the turbulence surrounding control of the throne, as well as the violent nature by which Kings were often replaced during this time it is easy to assume that the conflict was
A: The war of the roses was fought between the House of York and the House of Lancaster. These two houses were royal family descending from the head family of England. When king Henry the 6th suddenly fell ill to his first of many insanity spells Richard from the House of York believed that he had the right to temporarily take over since he was the great grand son of king Edward the third. Except Queen Margaret had already given birth to the kings first son, his name was Edward of Lancaster. This made Richards claim to the throne a lot weaker since Edward was a direct descendant of the current king. The york’s eventually marched against Henry and took him hostage Queen and his son to go into exile. The queen worked to rescue her husband and restore her sons place as the rightful king of England (Wars of the Roses - British History).
Unsolved issues and the complications of the relations between the House of Lancaster and the House of York initiated the government’s main struggle: no heir to the throne. The main struggle of the War of the Roses was the feud between the house of York (symbolized by a white rose) and the house of Lancaster (symbolized by a red rose) (J. Lacey, 2012). Henry VI led the house of the house of Lancaster; On the other hand, Richard of York led the house of York. Although both houses share Edward II as their ancestor, they fought over the throne and thus, the War of Roses developed. However, Henry VI had the legitimate right to throne, but unlike his father, were weak and a poor leader. This situation became worse when the people surrounding Henry