Causes And Effect Of Progesteroids

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Researchers have found evidence of estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone receptors are found within human ACLs (Slauterbeck, Hardy, 196). An increase in the levels of estrogen in ACL tissue cultures found a decrease in fibrobasts and procollagen production (Slauterbeck, Hardy, 197). The results that were found suggest that the variation in steroid hormone levels during the menstrual cycle and its effects on MMPs and TIMPs genes that are found in the ACL (Slauterbeck, Hardy, 197). The MMPs found in the ACL is expressed by different cell types, the include macrophages, neurophils, fibroblasts, trophoblasts, endometrial cells, epithelial cells, and various tumor cells (Slauterbeck, Hardy, 197). The enzymes listed can also be found in…show more content…
The results also agreed with reports on no correlation between ACL injuries and general categories of “follicular” or “luteal”, or that an ACL injury is more likely in the late luteal phase and early follicular phase (Slauterbeck, Hardy, 197). In the molecular section of Slauterbeck and Hardy’s study, Slauterbeck started a study that ultimately led to the identification of the estrogen receptor (ERα) in human ACLs. They also found progesterone in ACLs (Slauterbeck, Hardy, 197). Thye found that levels of estrogen and progesterone can safely be controlled, while testosterone shouldn’t be altered between genders without health consequences. But controlling estrogen and progesterone may be a simple way of preventing ACL injuries in female athletes (Slauterbeck, Hardy, 198). Many of the ACL injuries the athlete to have sugery and or have rehabilitation intervention. Financially the united states makes around 650 million dollars annually on secondary and collegiate level athletes. Researchers reported a relationship between ligament mechanical properties from the cyclic fluctuation of the female sex hormones (Zazulak, Paterno, Myer, Roman, Hewett, 848). During the follicular or menstrual phase estrogen, during a normal cycle, is secreted at a rate of 60 µg/day (Zazulak, et. al., 848). By the time the ovulation phase begins estrogen has reached a peak of 400-900 µg and will decrease to 300

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