Challenges of Development in Sumer and Egypt Essay

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An analysis of the two civilizations, Sumer and Egypt reveals one challenge facing human social development: geography and environmental features tend to shape the patterns of civilizations. Although the civilization of Sumer was prosperous and powerful, its geographical features ultimately weakened Sumer, exposing its vulnerability to invasion by neighboring civilizations. Egypt was similar to Mesopotamian civilizations in many ways, but Egypt’s distinct differences led to a distinguished social systems: government, economic, and religion that contributed to the seemingly endless prosperity of the Egyptians.
The Sumerians eventually fell to those civilizations that prevailed with more favoring topographic assets. Sumer was …show more content…

Military was a strong aspect since Sumer had no known natural barriers. The economy used crops as a form of money, as well as trade being important since Sumer had little natural resources.
To fully utilize natural resources, the Sumerians created many inventions that lead to evolutionary advancements with technology. Bronze weapons were replaced with Iron, the invention of the plow and eventual domestication of animals for agricultural purposes, and the sailboat, which was used as a mode of transportation for the trade of goods among neighboring civilizations. Among the most important inventions was the use of simple clay, the foundation of an organized communication system among the Sumerians made up of symbols, known as cuneiform. The output of knowledge by the Sumerians, despite harsh geographical circumstances, gave way as an influential role for growth and development in other civilizations such as Egypt with the invention of hieroglyphics, along the way.
Similar to Sumer, Egypt was referred to as a “river valley civilization.” Egypt was divided into two geographical parts, Upper and Lower Egypt. Lower Egypt was located at the Delta of the Nile River. This was the location of Egypt’s major cities. Upper Egypt contained small populations for rural farmland located more upstream. Natural Resources include stone, metals, timber, and mud. Natural barriers for the Egyptians included

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