Children exhibit behaviors that are associated with Bipolar Disorder (BPD) as early as 2 years of age. However, many children are not diagnosed until older due to the subjectivity of diagnosing children with mental disorders while their brains are still developing. This leads to a prolonged delay in diagnosis and treatment. However, with recent research, we are able to view and compare brain structures of those with BPD to those who are not affected by BPD. By MRI and fMRI scans, there are regions in the brain that are associated with BPD at certain sizes and activity levels. Individuals with Bipolar show decreased brain volumes in emotion related neurocircuitry, such as the amygdala and the prefrontal cortical regions (Marrus, Bell, & Luby, 2014). With being able to see structural abnormalities within the brain we are also able to determine if treatments for these disorders are effective. With the use of proper medication, volumetric differences occur in the regions of the brain that are associated with BPD and therefore provide evidence that brain structure abnormalities can be “normalized” with medication. However, even with treatment, individuals with BPD tend to follow the trend that they are still more susceptible to drug abuse, aggressive behavior, and binge drinking later on in life (Swendsen et al., 2010). Additionally, BPD used to always be considered the sole mental illness an individual had but recently it has been shown that BPD is comorbid with other diseases,
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Approximately 0.5-1 percent of Americans will develop bipolar II disorder in their lifetime, worldwide the prevalence is 0.4 percent (Rosenberg & Kosslyn, 2011). Bipolar disorder is one of the main causes of disability, because of its cognitive and functional impairment, the high rate of medical and psychiatric comorbidity, and the relevant suicide risk (Dell 'Osso, et al., 2016). Bipolar II disorder is one of the two most commonly diagnosed subtypes of Bipolar disorder, which are distinguished by the amount of burden the depression causes, the number, frequency, duration, and severity of the depressive episodes, and the occurrence of specific sub threshold episodes (Dell 'Osso, et al., 2016). Although bipolar II disorder diagnosis are on the rise we lack extensive research on the features and treatments of this disorder (Datto, Pottorf, Feeley, Laporte, & Liss, 2016). Bipolar II disorder is now recognized in the latest Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) under a new chapter dedicated specifically to bipolar disorders. Which proves that bipolar disorders are their own set of disorders in terms of symptomatology, family history, and genetics (Möller, et al., 2014). This allows an enhancement in the accuracy of diagnosis, which in turn leads to earlier treatment. In the DSM-5 it states that bipolar II disorder can lead to effects such as disability, comorbidity, mortality, and an impact on the quality of life (Datto, Pottorf,
Mental illness has plagued human kind for as long as we have been on this earth. The science of psychology has made great strides in past century. The stigma of being mentally ill has begun to fall away and people are finally starting to get the help that they need to recover. Bipolar disorder is one illness that we have come to more fully understand. Through assistance from a psychiatrist, family and medication a patient with bipolar disorder can enter remission and live a normal life.
Bipolar disorder is a manic-depressive lifelong illness in the brain that causes shifts in mood, energy, activity, and the ability to carry out normal tasks, but efficient treatment helps people to manage these complications and normalize their daily lives. This illness is a very serious mental disease affecting about 2.6 percent of adults in the United States that has the power to cause risky behavior and even suicidal tendencies if not treated (www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/bipolar-disorder/index.shtml). It is more common in older teens and young adults, but it affects children as young as six years old. It affects men and women, all races, ethnic groups, and socioeconomic classes equally but women experience more periods of depression than
A characteristic related across all mood states is the over activation of the prefrontal cortex. Malfunctions in the frontal cortex may lead to the dysregulation of moods. Mistransmissions on how to react to a situation is a leading possibility to bipolar. Another study shows that the prefrontal cortex of teenagers and young adults have a correlation of abnormalities over time between volume and age. Studies have seen that abnormal connections in the frontal lobe to the limbic system is a factor in bipolar episode changes. (Townsend)
Childhood Onset Bipolar Disorder (COBPD) is one of the most debilitating mental disorders affecting children today. Bipolar Disorder is a mood disorder usually affecting adults that causes sometimes severe changes in mood. Childhood Onset Bipolar disorder is just what it sounds like, a bipolar disorder that occurs during childhood. Persons suffering from a bipolar disorder experience mood swings ranging from depression to mania. During a depressive episode patients can experience feelings of extreme hopelessness or sadness, inability to concentrate and trouble sleeping. Symptoms of mania include rapidly changing ideas, exaggerated cheerfulness and excessive physical activity. Hypomanic symptoms are
Bipolar disorder is an affliction that affects many Americans. Children who live with parents who have this disorder often are neglected. Children are often not able to have a voice within their homes. The quality of life, emotional stability and childhood necessities are impacted by children raised by bipolar parents.
The National Institute of Mental Health has defined bipolar disorder as a serious mental illness that is marked by extreme changes in mood that range between two states: manic and depressive. Bipolar disorder, also known as manic depression, is classified as a mood disorder. This disorder goes beyond the typical ups and downs. Bipolar disorder is becoming more prevalent amongst children and teenagers and it is seen as a much more serious medical condition than it has in the past. A manic episode is characterized by feeling the following: very happy, excited, impulsive, show a short temper, talk really fast about a
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe and chronic neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by alternating episodes of major depression and mania. Episodes of mania are characterized by a distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated mood and increased goal-oriented activity lasting at least one week. Diagnostic criteria for BD have shown two subsets of BD (BD I and BD II), which are differentiated by the severity of the manic episodes. BD I is characterized by traditional manic episodes while BD II is characterized by hypomanic episodes, which are less severe than manic episodes, experienced in BD I. Major depressive episodes are characterized by pervasive and persistent low mood that is accompanied by low self-esteem and anhedonia (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). In the United States, BD has a lifetime and 12-month prevalence of approximately 5% (Merikangas et al., 2007) and has been ranked in the top six most debilitating illnesses in the world (Sanchez-Moreno et al., 2009). BD is likely to result from interactions between genetic vulnerability and environmental stressors that cause a widespread dysfunction across a wide range of neurobiological systems with current theories suggesting that BD can be conceptualized as a disorder of neuroplasticity (Machado-Vieira et al., 2014).
Choosing a topic to write my research essay over came pretty easily to me. I have grown up around my mothers best friend and never have I thought that she had an illness-that she was bipolar. She is a single mother, has a special needs son and is one of the most compassionate women I have ever met. She comes across as put together, supportive and outgoing; always seeming to have a positive outlook on life. It wasn’t until I was older that I learned about her childhood and her fight with bipolar disorder. As a child she had uncontrollable mood swings and was eventually diagnosed with bipolar disorder her sophomore year in college. She told me about her struggles and not comprehending why she was acting the way that she did, it intrigues
Since the 1990s, the amount of children who are diagnosed with a form of bipolar disorder have rocketed sky high. Children, like adults can possibly have neurological issues in the brain that does not allow them to function properly. These children are seen as hyperactive, aggressive people who are not able to control themselves mentally and emotionally. They can be described as a “ticking time bomb”, and people having to walk on eggshells around them, not knowing if it is going to be the euphoric or the depressed child, they are going to be dealing with. In this literature review, the following topics will be mentioned: the description of what bipolar disorder is; the types of bipolar disorders; the child’s state of mind in the disorder; the causes of bipolar disorder; The DSM-V criteria for diagnosing Bipolar disorder; and the treatment of the disorder.
Bipolar Disease is very common in America, especially among children and young adults. The disease over the years has grown rapidly within children and young adults. Studies have stated that a child that has at least 1 parent that has developed this disease, is most at risk to have it as well. It is stated that a child, who has one parent with this disease has a 10%-25% chance of developing the disease. Also, if the child has two parents that have developed the disease, it is a higher chance for the child to develop the Bipolar Disease as well. In most situations the disease tends to run in the immediate family. There are many causes and factors that cause children to have an Bipolar Disease. One of the two main factors that causes a child
The issues surrounding the importance of early diagnosis and the application of a variety of therapies for bipolar disorder are examined through the lens of a mix of quantitative, qualitative and mixed peer reviewed journals acquired from data sources such as MEDLINE, and Psycinfo by using Boolean language in Lamar University’s library data base. Current studies into the dynamics of manic depression or bipolar disorder, offer insight into future treatments; diagnosis of pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD); and detection of BD at a genetic level. Concerns that arise from this literature comprise issues relating to:
One notable feature of bipolar disorder is that patients have an enlarged amygdala. The presentation does not define the significance of the amygdala, or explain what it means that "duration of illness, prior medical exposure, number of hospital visits or duration of substance abuse were not associated with the enlarged amygdala" (Hendrickson et al 2013: 2)
Bipolar Disorder is categorized by periods of both depression and mania, with both full remission and lingering symptoms (Pavlova et al., 2016). Bipolar disorder can be a chronic disorder that greatly affects an individual’s daily life. The disorder can cause an inability to function in occupational, as well as social environments (Maniglio, 2013). Previous studies have aimed at the relations between childhood maltreatment and the onset of bipolar disorder. Such studies have suggested that childhood trauma is a high environmental stressor and is connected to bipolar disorder (Bucker et al., 2014 and Romero et al., 2009). Childhood trauma can impact the disorder by causing an earlier onset of the disorder, higher amounts of episodes and increasing numbers of hospitalizations (Delfina et al., 2015). Adults with bipolar disorder who have a history of childhood abuse compared to adults without a history of childhood abuse have shown an earlier onset of the disorder, higher amounts of rapid cycling, comorbid anxiety disorders, higher amounts of suicide attempts, as well as more substance abuse (Romero et al., 2009).