La Chanson de Roland, or The Song of Roland, is the oldest surviving French poem. It is also the oldest and greatest of the chansons de geste, medieval epic poems written in French. In old French, "geste" means a deed or action, often of heroic proportions. A hundred or so of these epic poems survive, dating from around the year 1100 to the late fourteenth century. In their time, they were exceedingly popular. Although we know neither the identity of The Song of Roland 's composer nor the date of
the Franks, the Defender of Christendom, the Emperor of Rome, and he was even said to be the Father of Europe. However, the question is which factor made it possible in order to justify his rule. Many historians say that the most important factor was only the fact that he was a great military leader, however, his heredity as well as the fact that he was a great military leader who also used his military to spread Christianity, being he was the Defender of Christendom, both played great part in legitimizing
Fiero (2002) states Germanic traditions, including those of personal valor and heroism associated with a warring culture, are reflected in the epic poems of the Early Middle Ages. The three most famous of these, Beowulf, The Song of the Nibelungen, and the Song of Roland, were transmitted orally for hundreds of years before they were written down sometime between the tenth and thirteenth centuries. (p.71) Although this age had a brief renaissance, the Early Middle Ages was a shadow of the great
Feudalism FEUDALISM is a disputed term. Not used at the time. It was invented by jurists in the Renaissance to describe the property laws and customs of the middle ages. A fief, or feudum, was land held by a man from his lord, in return for which he was to provide him with knight services and/or financial payments. Marx contrasted it to capitalism in the widest sense of that word so he inflated the term to mean the political, social, economic, and cultural system of Medieval Europe.