Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease ( Copd )

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Based on the information provided; the three differential diagnosis that are being considered include; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchitis and community acquired pneumonia (CAP) (Papadakis, McPhee, & Rabow, 2015). COPD Symptoms of COPD often begin in middle age and is commonly caused by years of smoking. COPD is progressive, irreversible and made up of chronic bronchitis and emphysema (Goolsby & Grubbs, 2011). Symptoms include; chronic productive cough for three consecutive months each year for 2 sequential years with intermittent acute exacerbations during which the symptoms worsen on exertion. COPD is predominantly a smoker’s disease that cluster in families and worsens with age. Inflammation of the cells lining the bronchial wall, hyperplasia of the mucous glands, and narrowing of the small airways. The term COPD does not include other obstructive diseases such as asthma (Papadakis et al., 2015). Acute Bronchitis Etiology of acute bronchitis include airway edema, airway wall thickening, excess mucus production and loss of ciliary function resultsource. Airflow is obstructed during both inspiration and expirations. Widespread bronchial narrowing with mucus plugging produces hypoxemia because of the mismatching of ventilation and perfusion (Papadakis et al., 2015). The most common presenting symptoms is dyspnea on exertion which usually develops late in the course of the disease. Lungs are diminished and crackles are more common than wheezes. The
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