Cirrhosis is a condition of scarring of the liver which is caused when the liver has tried repairing itself following damage. This damage may come from a previous infection, such as from a form of hepatitis (usually hepatitis C) or damage done by the use of toxins, such as alcohol. Cirrhosis is irreversible but future damage can be slowed or prevented by treating the underlying cause.
Cirrhosis is a serious disease of the liver where scar tissue replaces normal healthy tissue, and affects the function and structure of the liver. Liver, which is the largest organ in the body, has a vital roles which are important to keep the body functioning well. Liver makes proteins and enzymes that regulate blood clotting. It also regulates cholesterol and stores the energy. In addition, the liver removes poisons from the blood. 30% of cirrhosis's victims are diagnosed will remain alive for 5 years. Cirrhosis can be defined regarding its causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment.
Cirrhosis is known as a chronic disease of the liver. Cirrhosis usually develops when the scar tissue replaces normal, healthy tissue in the liver. It tends to happen whenever healthy cells are damaged over a long amount of time, usually for many years. However, the scar tissue makes the liver lumpy and hard, after a while, the organs will start to fail and the scar tissue makes it tough for the blood to get through a large vein (the portal vein) that goes into the liver. Occasionally when the blood backs up into the portal vein, it can get into the spleen (an abdominal organ involved in the production and removal of blood cells) and can really cause trouble. What causes this is other liver conditions or diseases the person may already have, which includes an (alcohol-related liver disease) by drinking too much alcohol for many years non-stop. It causes fat and inflammation in the liver. The amount of alcohol that it takes to hurt the liver is different for everyone.
Liver cirrhosis is a problem that can be caused by many liver diseases. It is a progressive disease itself, developing slowly over many years. It is characterized as scarring to the normal liver tissue which keeps this organ from working as it should and causes it to take on an abnormal structure. The diseases that lead to cirrhosis injure and kill liver cells. Scar tissue that has formed due to inflammation and repair, prevents the cells that have not died to properly replace the dead cells which result in newly formed cell clusters forming within the scar tissue.
Cirrhosis of the Liver is a horrible disease that takes the lives of many people every year. There are many causes, symptoms, ways to diagnose and treatments that surround this disease as well as many ways that this fatal disease can be prevented.
The liver is the largest gland and second largest organ in the human body. It is also the only internal organ capable of regeneration following injury. Located in the abdominal cavity, this reddish brown organ is divided into lobes of different size and shape. The liver plays a critical role in metabolism, digestion, elimination, and detoxification, among other processes. This organ performs a surprisingly large number of functions that influence virtually all other body systems. This is why diseases of the liver can be so devastating. One class of chronic diseases affecting the liver is cirrhosis. (Kasper, 2008)
Cirrhosis is the 12th leading cause of death in the United States. Cirrhosis affects one of the largest organs in the body, the liver. It is a condition that slowly worsens the liver and is unable to function normally due to chronic injury. Cirrhosis consists of four stages with the fourth stage being the most advanced stage of cirrhosis. When healthy liver cells are damaged and replaced by scar tissue (fibrosis) it’s known as a degenerative disease called cirrhosis. Chronic alcoholism is the leading cause of cirrhosis due to excessive drinking of alcohol, which causes the liver to swell. In sequence with alcoholism and hepatitis C, or alone obesity can be a risk factor in developing cirrhosis. Cirrhosis of the liver is a disease that can affect many individuals if the condition is not caught in early stages it can become deadly.
Additionally, many chronic liver diseases can lead to cirrhosis. For example, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can lead to cirrhosis and is associated with obesity, hyperlipidemia, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Hereditary metabolic disorders such as hemochromatosis and Wilson disease can also lead to cirrhosis (McCance & Heuther, 2014). It seems the cause of cirrhosis is multifaceted. Additionally, many diseases can lead to cirrhosis and it is understandable why the etiology of cirrhosis has not been parsed out, especially because the cause can differ from a
This case study is about Abdul Chidiac, a 51 year old male, married with 4 children. He had a medical history of hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and cirrhosis with two admissions in the last six months. He is a smoker and drinks beer, 5-6 bottles per day. As Carithers & McClain (2010) explained the patient’s medical history is another indicator of the risk for cirrhosis; the progression to cirrhosis is adaptable and may take time over weeks or many years. Cirrhosis is a liver disease characterized by permanent scarring of the
Alcohol abuse and hepatitis B and C are the most common causes of cirrhosis. Cirrhosis can cause weakness, loss of appetite, jaundice, itching, and fatigue, and can be diagnosed by blood tests, physical examinations, and a liver biopsy. There are many complications of cirrhosis, such as edema and ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatic encephalopathy, portal vein hypertension, hepatorenal and hepatopulmonary syndrome, hypersplenism, and liver cancer. One of the most common treatments of cirrhosis is a liver transplant. However, alcoholics have to be sober for six months to prove that they are serious about taking care of their new liver and staying sober after the
As the Directors at Sharp Reese Medical Facility it is important to raise awareness about the importance of the liver to the human body and the many important functions that it performs for the body such as digestion and the filtration of toxins and drugs from
It is a chronic disease that is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity across the world and over forty thousand (40,000) deaths each year in the United States are attributed to cirrhosis complications. Decompensated cirrhosis is a complex multisystem disorder and is characterized by malnutrition, multi-organ failure, and impaired immunity, which presents significant challenges to health care providers (Bird, Ramachandran, & Thomson, 2015). The period immediately following hospital discharge is a sensitive one as these patients often are on new medications or have changes in existing medications, are deconditioned, and/or have acquired new diagnoses One study showed that out of one hundred sixty-five (165) readmissions that occurred within thirty (30) days of discharge, twenty-two percent (22%) of them were possibly preventable. Thirty (30) day hospital readmission rates are commonly used as quality measures of a hospital (Berman, Tandra, Forssell, Vuppalanchi, Burton, Nguyen, Mullis, Kwo, & Chalasani, 2011). There are unfavorable consequences to the health care system, as well as the patients. Patients may lose confidence in the system and their providers. The burden of cost and duplicity of services is taken into account in light of the fact that a meaningful portion of these readmits can be prevented before discharge. A study conducted to examine the relationship between rehospitalizations within thirty (30) days and mortality at ninety (90) days showed liver disease patients had a thirteen percent (13%) ninety (90) day mortality rate. The disease process of cirrhosis and its complications can be overwhelming for patients and those that are involved in their care. They contend with having medications being adjusted frequently and, on occasion, conflicting advice
Based on 2014 hepatic encephalopathy guideline, NA’s hepatic encephalopathy is classified as type C and recurrent due to the cirrhosis and 2 episodes of HE occur with a time interval of 6 months or less. Typical signs and symptoms consistent with his HE includes confusion, forgetfulness, and anxiety. According to the guideline, the goals for the treatment are maintaining two to three bowel movements per day, decreasing elevated ammonia level, prevention of recurrent episodes of HE, and improvement of daily functioning. Lactulose is the first choice for treatment of overt HE. Currently, patient is on lactulose only once a day because of his noncompliance. The dose frequency is incorrect since he does not have at two to three bowel movements per day. Increasing frequency back to three times a day is recommended for the patient. Moreover, rifaximin is an effective add-on therapy to lactulose for prevention of OHE recurrence. Also, counseling the effects of lactulose and rifaximin, importance of adherence, early signs of recurring HE, and actions to be taken if recurrence are also beneficial for the patient.