Civil Rights and Civil Liberties

Good Essays

The Thirteenth Amendment ended slavery and African American slaves gained their freedom during the Civil War; however, this did not mean they were fully integrated into American society. After the war, Southern Whites faced a crisis. The emancipation of slaves and the Fourteenth Amendment’s guarantee of citizenship undermined their assertion that citizenship was for Whites only. The clear line between Whites who ruled and Blacks who were ruled became vulnerable. Since Whites slave owners could no longer treat the former slaves as non-citizens, they sought to strengthen this distinction by restoring slavery as best they could. Imposing disabilities on Black civil rights that limited their access to full citizenship was a goal to reach. …show more content…

Most Southern White schools had the best facilities, resources, books and teachers while Black schools received little funding and support. Vocational training was also limited to Blacks although the populations of White and Black children were nearly identical. Asian Americans also suffered from racial segregation and expulsion during the early twentieth century. In West Coast, the earliest Asian immigrants were Chinese, who were subject to extreme inequality of opportunity (Uyematsu, 1969, p.173). In 1882, to prevent the influx of Chinese immigrants into California, the federal government passed the Chinese Exclusion Act to prohibit Chinese laborers from entry into the U.S. for ten years. Another example of expulsion against Asian Americans, which is the most severe, occurred in 1942, after the Japanese bombing Pearl Harbor and the American entry into World War II. On the promulgation of Executive Order 9066, more than 110,000 Japanese, two-third of whom were American born, were forced to leave their homes and were transported to detention camps. Even though two years later the U.S. Supreme Court released Japanese, many could not return to their homes as they lost their properties by then (Ex parte Mitsuye Endo, 1944). Alongside ethnic groups, women have had a long struggle to attain equal rights. Since the earliest days of the country’s history, women, regardless of marital status

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