9-711-462 REV: MAY 26, 2011 DAVID B. YOFFIE RENEE KIM Cola Wars Conti inue: Coke an Peps in 201 C nd si 10 Fo more than a century, Co and Pepsi vied for “th or oke hroat share” o the world’s beverage m of s market. The most intense battles in the so-called col wars were fought over the $74 billio carbonated soft m b la e on drink (CSD) indus stry in the Un nited States.1 In a “carefu ully waged co ompetitive str ruggle” that l lasted from 1975 through the mid-199 both Cok and Pepsi a h 90s, ke achieved ave erage annual r revenue grow of wth nd oth w SD tion rose stead year afte year.2 Acco dily er ording aroun 10%, as bo U.S. and worldwide CS consumpt to Rog Enrico, fo ger ormer CEO of …show more content…
Yet Americans drank more soda than any other beverage. Within the CSD category, the cola segment maintained its dominance, although its market share dropped from 71% in 1990 to 55% in 2009.6 Non-cola CSDs included lemon/lime, citrus, pepper-type, orange, root beer, and other flavors. CSDs consisted of a flavor base (called “concentrate”), a sweetener, and carbonated water. The production and distribution of CSDs involved four major participants: concentrate producers, bottlers, retail channels, and suppliers.7 Concentrate Producers The concentrate producer blended raw material ingredients, packaged the mixture in plastic canisters, and shipped those containers to the bottler. To make concentrate for diet CSDs, concentrate makers often added artificial sweetener; with regular CSDs, bottlers added sugar or high-fructose corn syrup themselves. The concentrate manufacturing process involved relatively little capital investment in machinery, overhead, or labor. A typical concentrate manufacturing plant, which could cover a geographic area as large as the United States, cost between $50 million to $100 million to build.8 A concentrate producer’s most significant costs were for advertising, promotion, market research, and bottler support. Using innovative and sophisticated campaigns, they invested heavily in their trademarks over time. While concentrate producers implemented and financed marketing programs jointly with bottlers, they usually took
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PepsiCo. Incorporated and The Coca-Cola Company are the two largest and oldest archrivals in the carbonated soft drink (CSD) industry. Coca-Cola was invented and first marketed in 1886, followed by Pepsi Cola in 1898. Coca-Cola was named after the coca leaves and kola nuts John Pemberton used to make it, and Pepsi Cola after the beneficial effects its creator, Caleb Bradham, claimed it had on dyspepsia. The rivalry between the soda giants, also known as the "Cola Wars", began in the 1960’s when Coca-Cola's dominance was being increasingly challenged by Pepsi Cola. The competitive environment between the rivals was intense and well-publicized, forcing both companies to continuously establish and
The existing concentrate business is largely controlled by Coca-Cola Company (Coca-Cola) and PepsiCo (Pepsi), together claiming a combined 72% of the U.S. carbonated soft drink (CSD) market sales volume in 2009. Refer to Exhibit 1 for an illustration of the CSD industry value chain. For more than a century, Coca-Cola and Pepsi have maintained growth and large market shares through mastering five competitive forces, shown in Exhibit 2, that drive profitability and shape the industry structure.
During Cola Wars, a critic from the Onion, which is a satirical website. The Onion makes a reference to the Cold War, but it is about the Cola Wars, this is a written article,” Ad Industry Veterans Honored With Cola War Memorial,” discusses. The purpose of this article is to criticize those who make simple, unimportant things become an over exaggerated situation when there are bigger problems out there. The intended audience is for those who make irrelevant things bigger so he uses emotions and client testimonials. The attitude towards the audience is mocking the audience and burlesque which these both things are satirical. Therefore, the Onion uses the rhetorical devices of client testimonials, distortion and hyperbole.
Performing a financial analysis is very useful for any businesses to enhance the knowledge of performances, strengths and stability of their financial. This paper intends to compare and contrast the qualitative and financial statements of the past three years of the Multinational companies of soft drinks, Coca-Cola and PepsiCo. Currently, both companies are business competitors and they highly regard their customer’s base loyalty. To familiarize ourselves with these two successful companies, we have to focus on their differences. Coca-Cola was founded in 1886, nowadays is available in more than 200 countries being the most popular beverage with its 94% worldwide recognition and being world’s third valuable brand.
For more than a century, Coca Cola and PepsiCo have been the major competitors within the soft drink market. By employing various advertising tactics, strategies such as blind taste tests, and reward initiatives for the consumer, they have grown to become oligopolistic rivals. In the soft-drink business, “The Coca-Cola Company” and “PepsiCo, Incorporated” hold most of the market shares in virtually every region of the world. They have brands that the consumers want, whether it be soft-drink brands or in PepsioCo’s case, snacks. With only one soft-drink market, the two competitors have no choice but to increase sales by stealing the other competitor’s clients. This led to the term, the “cola wars” which was first used
convenience and gas, fountain, vending, and mass merchandisers (primary part of “Other” in “Cola Wars…”
The book Citizen Coke: The Making of Coca-Cola Capitalism by Bartow J. Elmore is about the environmental history of Coca-Cola. Elmore is a historian who grew up in the Atlanta area, where the Coca-Cola Company was formed and has a presence to this day. The book discusses how the Coca-Cola Company came into existence and how it acquired resources to manufacture the best-selling product, Coke. After doing a little bit of background on the three book options offered for review, I chose this book because I was most interested in how the company came into existence and how the products were manufactured. What I discovered was that the Coca-Cola Company is a consumer, not a producer. I will go on in this review and discuss the reasons why it is a consumer and not a producer.
But as the pop fight has topped out the industry’s giant have began relying in new product flavor and looking noncarbonated beverage for growth.” (strategic management in global context feb 22, 2006).
Coca-Cola is a leading beverage industry in the United States and many other countries in the world. PepsiCo is also a leading worldwide beverage company, but they are also the parent company of the Frito-Lay and Quaker Oats Companies. This makes PepsiCo a leader in the beverage, snack and cereal industries. As consumers, we have indulged in their products for many years. My personal preference has always been Pepsi over Coke, which is why I was very interested in conducting this analysis. Regardless of the results, I will always seek out a Diet Pepsi over a Diet Coke and so will many of my physician friends at Children’s Hospital who start their mornings with a Diet Pepsi. These personal preferences are what contributes to a company’s profits through net sales. However, the key performance measurement tools used are not based on sales alone. Calculating liquidity, solvency, and profitability ratios on a regular basis give us a better insight on the performance and overall health of a company.
Since EVA is positive for both proposals, the division 's current EVA would improve by $542,000 and therefore both proposals would be accepted. The decision is also in the best interest of the company.
In an industry dominated by two heavyweight contenders, Coke and Pepsi, in fact, between 1996 and 2004 per capita consumption of carbonated soft drinks (CSD) remained between 52 to 54 gallons per year. Consumption grew by an average of 3% per year over the next three decades. Fueling this growth were the increasing availability of CSD, the introduction of diet and flavored varieties, and brand extensions. There is couple of reasons why the industry is so profitable such as market share, availability and diversity and brand name and world class marketing.
The industry of Carbonated Soft Drinks (CSD) is highly concentrated. The three major companies, Coca Cola, PepsiCo, and Cadbury Schweppes accounted in 1998 for more than 90% of market share by case volume Exhibit 1-.