A political-economic phenomenon whereby various European nations explored, conquered, settled, and exploited large areas of the world.
The purposes of colonialism included economic exploitation of the colony's natural resources, creation of new markets for the colonizer, and extension of the colonizer's way of life beyond its national borders.
In the years 1500 – 1900 Europe colonized all of North and South America and Australia, most of Africa, and much of Asia by sending settlers to populate the land or by taking control of governments. The first colonies were established in the Western Hemisphere by the Spanish and Portuguese in the 15th – 16th centuries. The Dutch colonized Indonesia …show more content…
Colonialism often took place in pre-populated areas. This gave rise to culturally and ethnically mixed populations such as the mestizos of the Americas, as well as racially divided populations as found in French Algeria or Southern Rhodesia.
Modern colonialism started with the Age of Discovery. Portugal and Spain discovered new lands across the oceans and built trading posts. For some people, it is this building of colonies across oceans that differentiates colonialism from other types of expansionism. These new lands were divided between the Portuguese Empire and Spanish Empire, first by the papal bull Inter caetera and then by the Treaty of Tordesillas and the Treaty of Zaragoza (1529). This period is also associated with the Commercial Revolution. The late Middle Ages saw reforms in accountancy and banking in Italy and the eastern Mediterranean. These ideas were adopted and adapted in Western Europe to the high risks and rewards associated with colonial ventures. The 17th century saw the creation of the French Colonial Empire and the Dutch Empire, as well as the English Colonial Empire, which later became the British Empire. It also saw the establishment of some Swedish overseas colonies and a Danish colonial empire. The spread of colonial empires was reduced in the late 18th and early
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European imperialism during 1450-1750, began as a plan to gain more riches for the European nations. The Europeans did this for three main reasons, which were for God, Gold, and Glory. The Europeans domination over Latin America, Africa and Asia were made out to be good for the native people of these lands. However, the Europeans were not there to help these geographic areas. They were there to spread their influence and gain riches for themselves and the European nations. The successes and failures of the Europeans and non Europeans would decide their relationship status for as long as they could co-exist.
Imperialism was a time period in which more developed nations colonized less developed nations. The developed nations took advantage of the less developed nations resources, people, lands, and much more. Many countries lost their freedom and independence due to imperialism, however, they also received new technologies and innovations.
During the European age of expansion in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, various European nations were colonizing the newly discovered Americas. Spain and France would become prominent players in the Western Hemisphere, both conquering and colonizing new territories. However, each country had different methods of developing their colonies in the New World. Spanish and French settlements contrasted greatly with one another in terms of economic development and Native American relations.
In 1492 Christopher Columbus “discovered” the New World. This “discovery” led to the colonization of the New World by several European nations. European nations, such as Great Britain, started colonization for a variety of reasons.
Between 1492 and around 1735, Europe colonized in the Americas in order to gain more land. However, it was not due to excessive population in Europe, but rather mercantilism. In mercantilism, countries try to gain as much wealth as possible by increasing export and decreasing import. Europeans established the American colonies for their resources and not for the expansion of the countries. In North America, England colonized the eastern coast for its lumber, iron ore, and cash crops. The colonies were split into three sections, New England, the Middle Colonies, and Southern Colonies. Each had its own economy. In each of the colonies, the resources were gathered and turned into other products. However, there were not enough settlers willing to do this so the landowners used slavery to harvest and refine goods.
In the New World from 1492 to 1700, Christopher Columbus, a Spanish explorer, discovered the New World and began bringing Spain more wealth. Bullion and indigenous people were being brought to Europe. More expeditions continued to the New World and eventually settlement began to establish. The New England, the Middle Colonies, and the Chesapeake areas became the major colonies in the New World. In 1619, slaves were shipped across the world to farm and mine the colonies to bring wealth to England. Conflict across the colonies occurred making the development of the colonies difficult. It is within this context that the Spain and England are trying to establish the New World and wealth but in different ways. There are three significant differences between the Spanish and New England colonies. Spain and England had their own perceptions of the role of religion, economic base, and treatment of indigenous people.
The Americas were colonized rapidly upon their discovery in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth century. England seized territory along the eastern coast of North America, land soon to be referred to as the New England and Chesapeake colonies. Settlers to the New England and Chesapeake colonies were of the same country but motivated to travel to North America for vastly different social and economic reasons.
When a country feels superior to another and decides to take it over, that is called imperialism. Imperialism was occurring through a major part of the late 1800s and early 1900s, mainly taking a toll on Africa. During imperialism a country is able to gain government, trade, or the culture that has been adopted. The concept and action of imperialising can destroy many people's values and the their way of life for them personally. Imperialism was a selfish and negative concept towards certain cultural groups during the time of its reign.
Colonial establishment came into fruition during the early 1600’s with the founding of the first colony, Virginia, in 1607. Subsequently, more royal powers from the east decided to colonize more land in the New World; establishing colonies such as New York, Massachusetts, Maryland, Rhode Island, etc. These colonies came to be known as the 13th first colonies of the Americas. Although these colonies were all on the east coast, they each had their own distinct differences in development. For instance, Prior to 1700, Virginia and New Hampshire held distinct differences in development of English colonial societies in the New England and Chesapeake regions.
Extensive colonization of the Americas began in the 15th century, with the Spanish conquering the South, and the English settling in the northern areas of the continent. In spite of the separate colonies sharing the continent, the Spanish and New England colonies unfolded completely different. The colonies were significantly different in the terms of religion, government, and treatment of indigenous people.
In the 16th century, two worlds collided. From the eastern seas, Spain and Britain had set foot in the Americas. By the 17th century, the Spanish conquered the western and southern lands, and indoctrinated the natives. On the eastern front, the British created two strong settlements, Jamestown and Plymouth. Yet, despite the fact that both European countries were the first surviving colonies, their policies regarding politics, economics, and religion differed substantially.
The European colonization in the New World took three distinct forms. These included empires of settlement, commerce, and conquest. Spain considered the Indians as exploitable workforce, whereas France regarded them mainly as trade partners. In contrast, the English implemented a policy referred to as plantation settlement. This involved the exclusion or elimination of the indigenous population and the substitution by the Scots and native English. For over a century, Portugal and Spain remained the only European powers especially with the New World colonies. However, after 1600, other European nations started to follow their path. For instance, the New World Empire of France was centered mainly on trade. By the late or end of the 16th century, 1000 ships from France were involved in the fur trade, in the interior, and along the St. Lawrence River (Grizzard and Smith 180). The French built missions, trading posts, and forts (Nester 15).
New imperialism was a period of colonial expansion by European powers during the late 19th century and early 20th century. It is distinguished by the continuous territorial acquisitions of Africa and Asia by European powers. These powers include Great Britain, France, Netherlands, Germany, and Belgium (Tusan, Scramble for Africa, October 23rd). There were many reasons behind this aggressive competition. To them, these newfound lands were an opportunity to expand their power and exploit further resources. To put it bluntly, economic, political, cultural, and ideological motivations all helped start the era of New Imperialism and its new form of empire.
Exploratory expeditions to the New World quickly led to colonial settlements, as the major European countries vied with each other for a portion of the western hemisphere’s riches. »full text
Colonialism has been viewed and interpreted from multiple perspectives. Both the coloniser and the colonised are said to have benefitted therefrom. While on the one hand it is considered abject exploitation by the coloniser to fill his coffers, on the other, the routine by-products of colonisation were of absolute benefit to the colonised. The four century long period of colonisation that gripped the world is one of the most oft debated and scrutinized periods of human history. In the period beginning sixteenth century AD, trade and commerce through the sea route became a means of expanding markets in many countries. Great Britain, France, Belgium and Portugal were amongst the pioneers in taking their wares to countries far away, like Africa and Asia. One early form of colonialism that was thrust upon the colonised country was economic exploitation.