Beginning with Mesopotamia, according to McKay Mesopotamia was part of the Fertile Crescent, which was where the first agriculture developed (McKay, 35). Moving from Mesopotamia to the city-state Sumer, many farmers brought with them their farming tools and trade abilities so that they could successfully farm in warmer, more arid climates (McKay, 35). Irrigation was a major part of the process and was needed for them to succeed. As the civilization grew, people built temples in Mesopotamia, where farmers would use them to store food items and animals. To the Mesopotamian people, the belief of Polytheism, which is that of many Gods controlling the earth and world, brought a distinct outlook on life (McKay, 36). Sumerian
Mesopotamian Civilizations contributed massively to the development for future civilizations. To begin, the Sumerians created the first written language. Cuneiform was the writing system to keep track of business dealings when it comes to trading with the people who lived in lands that were thousands of miles away. Cuneiform also kept records and allowed new ideas to be passed from generation to generation (Doc 1). Cuneiform is developed from pictographs that were sideways and used
All the way from the start of civilization through to the Early Christianity there has been a pantheon of; destruction, recognition, wars, cultural diffusion, religious breakthroughs, laws that have been established, kings and queens crowned and dethroned. The Mesopotamian Civilization it was the land between two rivers the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers that civilization first began.
The people groups in ancient Egyptian were very different than our societies social groups today. Ancient Egyptians were grouped in a hierarchical system with the Pharaoh at the top and farmers and slaves at the bottom. The groups of people nearest to the top of society were the richest and most powerful. The Pharaoh was believed to be a god on earth and had the most power. He was responsible for making laws and keeping order. Ensuring that Egypt was not attacked or invaded by enemies and for keeping the gods happy so that the Nile flooded and there was a good harvest. The Vizier was the Pharaoh's chief advisor
The Nile River was the life force of ancient Egypt. People from all over the region immigrated to the area for its irrigation waters and rich silt deposits. The geography of the region played a huge role in the way the inhabitants and civilization in general was formed. The main core of Egypt covered 386, 560 square miles, of which only 11, 720 were cultivable (Tignor et al., Worlds Together, 62). The Nile differed itself specifically from the Tigris and Euphrates in that its waters did not irrigate or fertilize nearly as well but it did create green belts along the water. This created a society that flourished along the river. The Nile unlike Mesopotamia did not have a bountiful borderland but did have a desert rich in materials. The Niles predictability as the source of life and abundance shaped the character of the people and their culture. (Tignor et al., Worlds Together, 63). The Nile was peaceful and calm unlike the vicious Tigris And Euphrates Rivers. Egypt with its natural borders, which included the Mediterranean Sea, Deserts, and Large Waterfalls, was very isolated. This helped to achieve
Civilization. The word “civilization” comes from the Latin term for “city.” The first civilizations were the river-valley civilizations, so-called because they all developed alongside major rivers to secure an adequate water supply for agricultural production. 2 of the greatest river-valley civilizations were Mesopotamia and Egypt. All though they both supported having a patriarchal leader or king, Egypt had a strong, centralized government, whereas Mesopotamia was decentralized, and built based on small city-states operating independently.
Most people believe that all ancient civilizations were the same: they all lived with a steadfast loyalty to their one and only king that ruled all of the lands, civilizations only achievements were monumental buildings, and they vacuously attacked neighboring societies to gain more land for millennia. While some of this knowledge is true to an extent, civilizations accomplished an abundance more than some realize. Some fail to register that early civilizations are unique from each other. Egypt and Mesopotamia were two distinct civilizations. Despite similarities such as both being river civilizations, Egypt and Mesopotamia contrasted with each other in the areas of, type of ruling, religion, and
The Egyptian civilization was founded in much the same way as the Sumerian cities; the banks of the Nile River, which overflowed on a regular timetable, provided the necessary nutrients to the normally dry desert soil, allowing the people to build a thriving empire that lasted over 3000 years. This overflowing and irrigation of the river regulated Egyptian farming, and allowed for specialization within the society. (Chavalas, 42) The people of Egypt recognized this, and there are many places in their writings where they thank the gods for gifting them with the Nile: for example, this line in Akhenaton’s Hymn to the Aton which says, “You create Hapy, the Nile…to bring him, at your desire, to nourish the people.” (Brophy, 65) In addition to the river, the harsh climate of the desert around them protected them from military attack and allowed income and resources to be invested in arts and architecture, as opposed to weapons and the cultivation of an army. The combination of these two forces encouraged the creation of a class system within Egyptian society, where people could develop skills as artisans, merchants, scribes, priests, government officials, and may other varied professions. The complex and ritualistic religion of the Egyptians, as well as their favorable views on the afterlife, were also created through the time that they were able to spend philosophizing, instead of fighting to
The first civilizations and the rise of empires began with small groups or villages existing with the use of hunting, fishing, and foraging. (William J. Duiker and Jackson J. Spielvogel, World History, vol. 1, 1) Within a few thousand years, people learned how to cultivate food crops and this led to an increase in population. Increased food production resulted in larger communities. The cities began to expand their cultural and religious developments leading to the beginnings of civilization. (Duiker, World History, 1) The first civilizations emerged in Mesopotamia and Egypt during the fourth and third millennia B.C.E and had various components in common. Each of these civilizations was established in a river valley so they were able to provide and produce the agricultural resources needed to survive and uphold the population. (Duiker, World History, 1) Mesopotamia developed in the valley between the Tigris and Euphrates River known as “the land between the rivers.” These rivers provided irregular and catastrophic flooding for the city-state. They created an intensive irrigation system to improve their agriculture. The first people to create Mesopotamian civilization were known as the Sumerians. These people were the first city builders and created the major city’s named Eridu, Ur, Uruk, Umma, and Lagash. These cities were built with surrounding walls and defense towers. A six-mile-long wall enclosed the city of Uruk. Mesopotamia lacked
During ancient Egypt, civilization was brought about because the people picked a ruler, or king. “Two of the most important sources of life for the ancient Egyptians were the Nile River and the Pharaoh” (William). At the time, society was very hierarchical; the society was divided into two groups: the privileged people and the majority. The king kept control and managed everything ranging from politics to religion.
Early civilization shared similar common features, because all of these societies were under the same pressures. Their whole purpose was survival as it is to this day. Each societies main focus was to become established, stay in one place provide food, shelter and protection for their families. Early civilizations materialize along rivers, because rivers supplied a continuous and dependable supply of water for farming and human consumption. Agriculture today has had an enormous benefit on today’s society, there are now more farmers growing organic fruits and vegetables because the realize the great health benefits organic foods have on human consumption, providing less risk of pesticides and or chemicals on their food.
There were many forces which contributed to the cultural makeup of early civilizations. These forces included the weather and the landscape which early civilizations faced in their regions. The ways in which they acquired food and formulated communication also impacted their culture. The formulation of a system of religion would be the key factor in the creation of a unique cultural identity. Indeed, the religious identification of a population would not be able to be separated from the group's cultural identity. Additionally, the scientific progressions of a population would have a strong impact on the cultural makeup of that society. For example, the tools that a population were able to construct would determine many of the possible living arrangements within a population. Cultures which thrived more on hunting for example would learn to construct homes of skin and clothing out of the material which would, in turn, allow them to better survive in the elements and further progress historically.
The Ancient Mesopotamians ate all the seeds that they found that could be used for farming. But once they figured out how to farm, they would plant seeds instead of eating them. Farming, or agriculture, made an enormous impact on how they lived. Farming also led to almost everything else that they invented. Because of the fertile soil, farming went really well for them. But will all the farming that began, they needed water to be delivered to their fields for their plants. According to the article, this led to irrigation. Now that water got provided, crops grew amazingly. After their farming was going really well, they had more food than needed. Ancient Mesopotamia traded the surplus food to other countries for money. But they need a way to
The development of early civilizations depended heavily upon where it was located geographically and if this location proved to be any benefit to the people. Civilizations such as Mesopotamia and India where densely populated areas which saw new technological advances and innovations that added to their civilization’s advancement. Geographically, these two civilizations were comparable in nature due to their locations near rivers, which posed advantages as well as disadvantages. Mesopotamia and India differed in the aspect of the river’s effect it had on the soil which in turn affected the civilization’s agriculture.
Mesopotamia – Emerged during the 4th millennium. The land between the rivers in the fertile crescent. Early cultivators realized by tapping these rivers, they were able to produce crops, and produce. Artificial irrigation manipulating the environment.