Conflicts, Disputes, And Solutions

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Conflicts, Disputes, and Solutions
Over the past century there has been a dramatic increase in conflicts and disputes, especially after the historic publishing of The Communist Manifesto in 1848, written by the father of conflict theory Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Till now, even after the Professor Sander’s historic paper, “The Pound Conference: Perspectives on Justice in the Future” in 1976, people are still trying to find more effective and efficient solutions to conflicts or disputes ranging from family issues to commercial disputes, and fortunately, the development of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) is the most successful methods for conflicts. The concepts that many people have of conflicts and disputes is
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Dispute is the formal name of dysfunctional conflict, which is viewed as “a kind of conflict manifesting itself in a distinct, justiciable issues” (Brown and Marriot 1999). This view indicates that one more feature of the dispute is its justiciability. Burton (1993) further distinguished the two concepts from a time-scale perspective, who suggested that compared with conflict, dispute which is supposed to be easy to resolve is a kind of short-term disagreement that are embedded in a larger and longer-term conflict. Thus, from this analysis of conflict and dispute, it can be suggested that conflict is inevitable while dispute is needed to be avoided.
As to the reason why conflicts are inevitable, Karl Marx provided a classic view of class struggle, which said the struggle for scarce resources is the fundamental reason of conflicts. Inherited from Karl Marx’s conflict theory, German sociologist Ralf Dahrendorf pointed out that it is the unbalanced distribution of scarce resources including authority and wealth that results in conflicts (Dahrendorf 1963). Dahrendorf (1963) later concluded that because of the existence of ruler and the ruled in the society, the characteristics of inequality would hardly be removed by society itself, which indicates that conflict is a trait of the society. This view is supported and further developed by Acland (1990, p69), who suggested that conflict is the nature
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