Since biblical times Jewish communities lived in Arab lands, in Persia, India, East and North Africa and indeed in Palestine. However more modern times have seen them as a nomadic people, living in various countries but never truly finding a land to call there own. In the late 19th and early 20th century an idea began to gain solidarity and momentum, that of Zionism. The idea of Zionism, to create a Jewish state, is arguably one of modern society’s most polarizing and influential movements. Zionism has influenced political, religious, and social groups in a variety of ways that culminated in the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine.(Cohen, week 10)
The investigation assesses demographic shifts to Palestine in the context of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. It more specifically inquires about the impact of Jewish immigration on Palestine in terms of the effects it had on Jewish-Arab relationships in Palestine. It seeks to determine the extent the third, fourth, and fifth aliyahs of 1919-1939 had on the economic development of the Israeli State and its social implications. Monographs and general texts will be used to provide background on the conflict, including the rise of Zionism, the British Mandate, the White Paper, and the Peel Commission. This context will also be used to critically analyze the role of Jewish immigration to Palestine and the role it played in land reforms, rioting, and the implementation of restrictions set by the British government on Palestine. Two secondary sources, William L. Cleveland’s A History of the Modern Middle East and Howard M. Sachar’s A History of
Edward Said’s “States” features an insightful, in depth analysis of “Orientalism” as it applies to Palestinians and Israelis. He begins with a description of Palestine and the Palestinian condition using photographs to demonstrate a more humanized perspective of these transient people. Said reflects on his childhood in Palestine and draws from personal experience to paint a picture of a people without a home, or to be more accurate, people without an identity. A rhetorical analysis reveals the levels to which Said’s persuasion actually manages to persuade the audience. Said’s use of pathos is strong and well developed due to his use of anecdotal evidence and his insistence on humanizing the issue, while his ethos is considerably boosted by his personal experiences in Palestine, with Israelis, and his comprehensive study of
The Israel-Palestine conflict is one of the most long-term, pressing, and largely confounding social, political, and national quandaries of our age. Since we have been moving with surprising velocity into the vast horizons of globalization, the conflict has built up tremendous momentum and has called into question the adequacy of our current attempts at coming to a peaceful resolution that can simultaneously and successfully address both sides of the struggle. The purpose of this paper has been to understand the prospect of a two-state nation solution for Israel and Palestine. The discussion arises a retrospective view of the context behind the present analysis. We begin with a discourse that informs the reader of the historical narrative between the Jewish inhabitants of Israel and the Palestinians who also seek to live in the lands which comprise Israel. At the forefront of the discussion are some key issues such as trends in Israeli settlement expansion over time, the manner in which these settlements create political challenges towards the prospect of a two-state solution, and the fragmentation of power within Palestinian political parties which inhibit the opportunity for proper negotiations amongst the two parties. Finally, we delve into a discussion on nationalism, it’s importance in the discussion of a two-state solution, and the challenges posed when trying to formulate US Foreign Policy towards the matter.
Any reference to conflict turns history into a reservoir of blame. In the presence of conflict, narratives differ and multiply to delegitimize the opponent and to justify one’s own action. Narratives shape social knowledge. The Israeli Palestinian conflict, both Jews and Muslims, view the importance of holding the territories through religious, ideological, and security lenses, based on belief that Palestine was given by divine providence and that the land belongs to either the Israelis or Palestinian’s ancestral home. Understanding these perspectives is required for understanding Palestinians’ and especially Israel’s strategy and role in entering the Oslo peace process. Despite
Jewish women fighting within the partisan groups faced an uphill battle in their attempt to gain respect and find their place within the group. Being both Jewish and women, just gaining access into the group was difficult but then once they were in, they faced being bound by traditional feminine role and the threat of sexual abuse. Many partisan women though, did not let racism, and sexism define them and proved themselves valuable through their work ethics, skills, and strength. Through several stories we have learned about, we can see the heroism that these women showed and how they broke away from the traditional roles that women were expected to play, shattering the stereotypes that were put on them. These women survived not only being a partisan but also the “evil twins of anti-Semitic and sexual violence (JPEF1).”
The cycle of settlement, exodus, and displacement is central to that of Jewish history. Theodor Herzl’s “A Jewish State” explores this question in depth in light of the inception of the political Zionist movement and the general rise of nationalism across the Middle East. “A Jewish State” serves to capitalize on unrest of the Jewish people in light of segregation in European states through connections that rely upon two relatively recent developments in the Western world at the time: imperialism and the repercussions of the Industrial Revolution. The language of the document is connected to a general theme of hierarchy and power dynamics both in Jewish society and in the context of states. Additionally, sophisticated word choice suggests that the intended audience would be Jewish individuals with a high level of education and possibly status and wealth.
Cynthia Enloe’s book titled Nimo’s War, Emma’s War: Making Feminist Sense of the Iraq War allows readers to enter the lives of eight women; four American and four Iraqi, in order to better understand the everyday lives of people, their struggles, and the outcomes of war by using particular stories of women to bring together issues present globally. Enloe wrote this book to analyze war from a feminist perspective. Analyzing war through a feminist lens by way of stories makes understanding the war more accessible for wider audiences (Enloe 2010:xii and 218). The use of stories allows for a better understanding of women in both countries and shows that there is no one group of women, whether that be American or Iraqi, there is no monolithic Muslim women or American women (Enloe 2010:xii). In doing so, Enloe (2010) allows for readers of all backgrounds to critically question the gendered aspects of war including the histories, feelings, struggles, and the ways in which women organize and resist war waging (p. xii). Enloe (2010) in both her purpose for writing this book and in the title, does not focus on one group of women which allows for a more serious and balanced engagement with the women in both countries. Enloe connects stories of women from two countries while at war. When women are taken seriously in all of their diversity, and their ideas and actions are explored, the world will better understand how upholding certain forms of masculinity at particular moments in time
Elias Chocour’s novel, Blood Brothers, represents his point of view on the contemporary Palestinian position regarding the holy land of Israel. The book traces the transformation of Chocour’s life, from a Melkite Christian Palestinian boy into a powerful spiritual leader and innovative agent in facilitating better race relations in the region. He shows how Palestinian’ needs were left out during the formation of the State of Israel, and how their plight is highly misunderstood, and often grossly distorted because of ignorance. Chocour’s depiction of the problem facing non-Jews is highly illuminating, and Blood Brothers will dispel many illusions and fallacies that cloud the facts surrounding the
With the passage at hand, Dr. Ella Shohat discusses about the case of being an Arab Jew, a historical paradox, as one of many social elisions. Unlike the idea of intersectionality, binarism leaves “little place for complex identities” (Shohat, 2). As an American, Jew, and Arab, she speaks of the disparities amidst a war involving all three cultural topographies. Albeit she speaks from a subjective standpoint, she does not mention the issue of racial hygiene, class, geographic divisions, and gender. Passages from Guenter Lewy, Melissa Wright, and Philippe Bourgois will be used to discuss the way in which different positionalities might affect the analysis of “Dislocated Identities.”
The scattering a Jews beyond Israel has been a reoccurring pattern of events in history. Essential Jewish practice and creation of cultural identity has formed far from Jerusalem, despite the Torah’s vital theme of longing for the Promise Land. The idea that Jews are outsiders is ingrained in Jewish culture and identity Jerusalem faces being exiled too because it is “merely an extension of Western colonialism,” from its neighboring countries. However, today Jews are starting to close the chapter in history of exile and statelessness by returning to the Promise Land but this doesn’t mean that the Diaspora is coming to an end. Jewish history has continuous movement that caused great triumph and sadness. The issue that Jews have faced for so long is not having a home, power, and a sense of belonging because of the continuous exiling and persecution they face, at home and away, while still trying to create an identity for themselves.
In the article titled, ‘Feminism, Nationalism, and Militarism after the Cold War’, by Cynthia Enloe, the links between feminism and nationalism are discussed through the analysis of the Cold War. The article makes striking comments about the treatment of women in the context of masculine societies. War is often associated with masculinity as men are expected to take up arms and fight for nationalism. This narrative of war often excludes the stories of women, particularly women who survive sexual assaults during war. History lacks the female perspective on war, particularly because social justice is rarely achieved for women who were raped. Women are forced into war when men use the military tactic of rape to ignite a need for nationalism and
Edward Said “States” refutes the view Western journalists, writers, and scholars have created in order to represent Eastern cultures as mysterious, dangerous, unchanging, and inferior. According to Said, who was born in Jerusalem at that time Palestine, the way westerners represent eastern people impacts the way they interact with the global community. All of this adds to, Palestinians having to endure unfair challenges such as eviction, misrepresentation, and marginalization that have forced them to spread allover the world. By narrating the story of his country Palestine, and his fellow countrymen from their own perspective Said is able to humanize Palestinians to the reader. “States” makes the reader feel the importance of having a