The reading passage presents three hypothesis to explain the decline in the yellow cedar trees in North America. However, the lecturer doesn’t agree with the author . She puts forward her points to defend her argument.
To begin with, the text asserts that the insect parasite specifically cedar bark beetles are the one of the reasons. According the author the betel larvae’s eat the bark and make trees weak. In contrary, the professor claims that there is no evidence of the insects on strong living trees; He also point out that the finding of the insects are found on the dead trees or about to die. Also, the professor argues that the poison content in the leaves of cedar tree is enough to keep the insect parasites away from it. This directly
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Every forest has a story to tell. By looking closely at its habitants, that story can be interpreted. Much of this narrative is written in the trees: their age, their tolerance to shade, and the rate at which they grow are all characteristics that can imply a lot about their environment. Exploring these relationships and how they connect with each other can indicate the health and history of the land. Heiberg Forest, located in northern New York, was once used for agricultural purposes in the 1800-1900’s. (Nowak, Lecture Notes) Much of the land once used for farming was left to regrow back into a young forest. The life history of different tree species can be determined by examining the most common species in Heiberg.
Death is an inevitable and inescapable fact of human life, which is the greatest lesson Gilgamesh learns. Gilgamesh is bitter that only the gods can live forever and says as much when Enkidu warns him away from their fight with Humbaba. Life is short, the two warriors tell each other on their way to the deadly confrontation in the Cedar Forest, and the only thing that lasts is fame. But when Enkidu is cursed with an inglorious, painful death, their bravado rings hollow. Shamash, the sun god, consoles Enkidu by reminding him how rich his life has been, but though Enkidu finally resigns himself to his fate, Gilgamesh is terrified by the thought of his own. Mesopotamian theology offers a vision of an afterlife, but it gives scant comfort—the dead spend their time being dead.
“People who will not sustain trees, will soon live in a world that cannot sustain people”(Bryce Nelson). Deforestation is the permanent destruction of forests in order to make the land available for other uses. Deforestation has overtime become a leading environmental problem in the U.S. It is estimated that at the beginning of the european settlement, in 1630, the area of forest was 423 million hectares. By 1907, the area had declined to 307 million, according to,”U.S forest facts and historical trends”. Deforestation is caused and will affect the human who call the U.S home. Issues with the environment such as global warming, the thinning of the ozone, and deforestation all contribute to critical problems in the U.S. deforestation highly
However, once they infest a tree they will continue to feed on it for years, causing severe damage to nutrient transport systems, which can cause massive leaf die offs, dead roots, and the death of the tree itself.
The author argues that cedar bark beetle which is a species of insect parasites endanger the yellow cedar. Conversely, the lecturer brings up the idea that the yellow cedar is much more resistance to insects than other species trees due to its bark releases a powerful chemical poison which is fatal, so insects are killed by attacking to bark.
But when lodgepole/ whitebark pine co-occurred in mixed stands beetles prefer to attack lodgepole pine more than low defensive naïve host whitebark pine. Only in pure stands on high elevations and in mixed stands with less number of lodgepole pine, whitebark pine are more prone to beetle attack. This two observations contradicts their predictions. Thus due to historic cold climate in high elevation areas and weak selective pressures whitebark pine spend low energy in defense against bark beetles and save that energy to fight other extreme physiological conditions. Based on predators and competitors data collected from the baits suspended from attacked and unattacked lodgepole/whitebark pine trees they concluded that both predators and competitors are attracted more to volatiles secreted from attacked lodgepole pine while in unattacked trees they were present in equal numbers indicating historic role of this primary host in this particular behavioral response. This indicate that with increasing high temperature levels there is a possibility that pine beetles may change from being common to appearing in significantly high levels in whitebark pine and based on other studies once they are destroyed by beetles in hot climate they aid
Pinus taeda was only a minor component (2.2 million hectares) of hardwood dominated Piedmont forest before European settlement in the U.S. (before the 1800’s). These forests were converted into agricultural lands (especially cotton farming) after European settlement. However, the introduction of the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman) impacted growing cotton industry and piedmont and coastal plains in the south remained unused. Abandoned land with eroded soil created a favorable condition for the spread of the light-seeded P. taeda trees resulting in the widespread growth of pure P. taeda stand (Schultz, 1997). Fire control programs conducted in the early 1900s further favored those stands. Furthermore, P. taeda stands expanded
As the Premier of Ontario, I have finally made the decision about the forests of Temagami. By going through everybody’s needs and wants, I have decided that not the old growth pine forests but instead, the regular forest trees are the ones that are going to be cut down for Temagami’s economy. Since cutting down no trees is not an option, the best choice left is to let our old growth trees live. Old growth forests are home to more than half of the world’s red and white pine trees. Only a tiny fraction of these forests is left and if we keep on cutting them down, we are going to lose them all. Those trees are already suffering because of the wild weather conditions in that region. Also, this way, we can leave the regular forests for the loggers
First of all, the author points out that, Yellowstone fires diminished the park's trees and other plants also disappeared because of enormous fire. It is mentioned that one third of the trees burned and it is disaster. This point is challenged by the lecturer. She says by removing some kind of trees more chance created for smaller plants and
The Lorax used his rhymes to save the truffula trees; he was their voice and their sentry, guarding them till the last one fell. Yet there seems to be no mythical creature here outside of Dr. Sues’ books to save the oaks, the birches, the conifers and the maples. They keep falling and our forests are being depleted far faster than they grow. Trees are sources of material, beauty, oxygen, shelter, shade, and natural boundaries. With all these uses for something as simple as a tree it seems only one of these uses causes harm to the tree.
As minutes pass by, a beaver comes upon the Red Maple. Luckily for the Red Maple, its chemicals act as a repellant. As the beaver walks away, the Red Maple continues on its work. As if the wind was a messenger, the tree knew that it had only a short amount of time left before it would rain. The leaves of the Maple begins to droop as the clouds begin to cover the sky. But also covering the sky was truck exhaust. To the left and right of the Red Maple, trees were being cut down. Deforestation has come with urbanization, a rate of 1.02%. Deforestation has caused habitat destruction, forcing many animals to be moved. The biodiversity of the dead forest is not
Patterns such as these reinforce the idea that anthropogenic disturbances have a strong influence on surrounding environment and its inhabitants. The variety of responses from different species highlight the theory that some populations may be in more danger than others. There is a strong correlation between locations further into the forest and greater specie figures which may be attributed to due to bareness of vegetation and resources closer to the roadside. The removal of trees that is required in road construction is a destructive implication and this extent of this damage is supported by trends such as the absence of arboreal animals at the
From 1990 to 2005, deforestation, or the removal of trees, was happening at an average rate of 13 million hectares (32.11 million acres) per year (Hope 247). In many ways, deforestation has been the reason for great economic success which turns people on to the idea even more. Deforestation is an essential element in promoting and encouraging developmental growth. Some places around the world may feel obligated to resort to deforestation due to population increases around the world. The concept of deforestation may seem to have a positive impact on society, but many people fail to consider the importance of replanting the trees that were harvested and removed. Deforestation mainly affects North and South America, but because of the Transamazon
First, the reading states that the disappearance of nearly every tree on the Island points to kind of environmental destruction that could result from foreign incursions. The professor opposes this point by saying this point is wrong. The professor states that internal factor was the cause of trees destruction, not the invaders. The professor points out that the communities in the Island erected some status to demonstrate their dominance, and they were cutting the tree logs to build