Defensible Space and Its Four Elements Essay

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Defensible Space was first introduced as a “model for residential environments”. The idea was to “inhibit crime by creating the physical expression of a social fabric that defends itself” (Newman, 1972:3), which “could arguably be achieved by the manipulation of architectural and design elements” (Newman, 1972; Coaffee, 2003:18). The model has four elements of physical design which act to contribute to the creation of secure environments: territoriality, natural surveillance, image and milieu. Newman states that territoriality is “the capacity of the physical environment to create perceived zones of territorial influences” (1972:51). Thus with the use of real or symbolic barriers, the built environment should be subdivided into clearly…show more content…
This would create a “stand-off distance” that would minimizes the risk to which the facility is exposed (FEMA, 2003a, 2003b). The second issue talks about guarding surroundings of site or providing outdoor circle of security. These should be chosen, located and designed to stop or delay an intruder (especially large scale carrier of weapon), not provide any concealing cover for surprise attacks or possible bombs, and be impossible to use as a natural ladder to gain entry to upper levels of the structure (Craighead, 2003; FEMA, 2003a; Fennelly, 1997; GSA, 2003; Kozlow and Sullivan, 2000) The basic physical attributes of a place that are considered to influence perception of security are: prospect (visual openness), escape and refuge (Appleton, 1975; Fisher and Nasar, 1992; Holahan,1982; Kaplan, et al., 1998; Nasar and Jones, 1997; Newman, 1972; Tijerino, 1998; Ulrich, 1993). According to this analysis a concrete façade may seem to provide
Using that terminology, a solid, concrete façade, may seem to provide a greater level of protection refuge compared to a glass façade. Whereas a glass façade can be considered as of better prospect as it provides a greater visual openness also a glass façade provide a greater opportunity to escape and may indicate less entrapment. In addition the different qualities of the built environment influence the sense of security of the building as a factor of the level of terrorism threat differs. In less level
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