Diffuse Axonal Injury And Its Effects

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Zaqhery Morones
Mr. Trantum
11 January 2017
Diffuse Axonal Injury
Diffuse axonal injury occurs in nearly half of all severe craniocerebral traumas. Lesions in the white matter over a wide area of the brain, often affecting the brainstem, corpus callosum, and cerebral hemispheres are caused by DAI. Studies show that DAI is a result of traumatic acceleration/deceleration, and ninety percent of patients with severe DAI never regain consciousness, while those who do survive often face significant impairs. This injury is extensive and is considered diffuse rather than focal because it occurs over a widespread area of the brain rather than one specific location of the brain.
Diagnosing Diffuse axonal injury has proven to be a
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Messages to nerve cells that are sent back and forth are disrupted and movement, speech, and most basic life function could be lost. The trauma is very often too much for the brain to handle as it takes over so much of the nerve cells, which is why comatose is a likely outcome. Auto accidents, sports-related injuries, explosions, and abuse--such as shaken baby syndrome--rank among the top causes of DAI. Unlike focal injuries it takes more than just blunt force to create such a widespread craniocerebral injury. Violent shaking or vibration movement, possibly along with blunt force to the brain are more likely causes of this severe axon disruption.
Following a blow to the head the cerebrum goes back and forth in a gliding motion around the upper brainstem. The brainstem along with the cerebellum is firmly fixed in place by the cerebellar tentorium while the cerebral falx prevents any side to side motion. Because of DAI, axons are stretched out as the brain moves and the deformation causes changes in the axonal cytoskeleton, which causes the axoplasmic flow to arrest creating axonal swellings. After this event, it is likely the axons rupture. The different densities of different areas of the human brain are important to take into account. The grey matter is more dense than the white matter; therefore, the white matter travels more rapidly. This explains why diffuse axonal injury lesions are
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