Direct Methods for Transformation of Plants or Plant Cells

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Methods for transformation of plants or plant cells are divided into two which are direct methods and indirect method. There are three types of method that categorized under direct method which are microprojectile bombardment, electroporation and silicon carbide whisker. Firstly, microprojectile bombardment where employs high velocity metal particles to deliver biologically active DNA into plant cells (Christou, 1992). This method involved the gene gun made by Bio-Listics (Russell, 2010). The tungsten or gold particles could be used to introduce macromolecules such as RNA and DNA into plant cells with subsequent transient expression of enzymes encoded by these compounds. There are three important physical parameters in this process which are the properties of the metal particles used to carry the foreign DNA into the cells, the binding of DNA onto the particles and the target tissue itself. Christou (1992) stated that metal particles should be high enough mass in order to possess sufficient force to penetrate into the appropriate tissue. Suitable metal particles include gold, tungsten and possibly other second and third row transition metals (Christou, 1992). The metal particles used should be chemically inert to prevent adverse reactions with the DNA or cell compartments and should also be able to form organometallic complexes with the DNA possessing the correct stereochemistry (Christou, 1992). Besides, the metal particle should be sterile to avoid contamination and toxic
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