Educational Reformation Research Paper

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The History of Educational Reformation Programs Within the "at risk" Black Community
Since slavery, Reconstruction, and the Civil Rights Era, reformed education has been a part of the drive to better the learning of the American people. With African Americans and other ethnic groups joining the "American dream", programs improving the education system took a more concrete form, intending to provide wholesome education and funding of resources for those in need. Today, this history of reconstructing the education system presently affects us. With the signing of the "Every Child Succeeds Act" by President Obama, the country will again see a new face to education reformation in the United States. Throughout history there has been criticism of …show more content…

269). With this, the bill "contributed $20,000 for the erection of the [Hampton Institute] building" (Virginia Writers' Project, 1940, p. 265). White philanthropists during this time period also joined to help fund the education of Black Americans; however, as time passed, the help of many Whites and the government, began to fade with the death of Abraham Lincoln and the "Re-constructing of America” zeitgeist. While African Americans were improving, Whites still wanted to maintain dominance, and tight control over the formerly oppressed ethnic class. Black people were refused the right to vote, receive adequate education and work, even within their own communities (Virginia Writers' Project, 1940, p. 270). This new period, after Reconstruction (1865-1908), Blacks began to suffer politically due to disenfranchisement (African American History Timeline, 2009). From this time until the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s, African Americans would strive to work independently, if they needed, to maintain schools in their communities. With racist leaders taking power in the government, disenfranchisement and blatant racism within the education system lasted only to snowball into Jim Crow from …show more content…

Starting in the late 1800s through the 1960s voting exclusions were sanctioned through literacy tests which segregated poll locations throughout the Country (African American History Timeline, 2009). US Civil Rights Commissioner Dean Griswold of Ohio stated during the 1962 Hearings of the Bills Relating to Literacy Tests and Voter Requirements, that "State officials did [do] use literacy tests as a means of discrimination on grounds of race and color" (Literacy Tests and Voter Requirements in Federal And State Elections Hearing, 1962, p. 144). However, out of the many states affecting African Americans through voting prohibitions, none of them negatively affected Blacks as much as Mississippi. According to the Encyclopedia of African American Christian Heritage "only 6.7% of Blacks in [Mississippi] were registered to vote, the lowest percentage in the country" (McMickle, 2002). In response to this alarming percentage, advocates for civil rights grouped together to form a campaign in Mississippi focused on teaching literacy, the political structure in the US, and other academic subjects (Emery, et al., “The Mississippi Freedom School Curriculum”). The project, which was launched during the summer of 1964, was known as the "Freedom Summer". This initiative is so significant in discussing educational reformations in the Black community because it was a community led

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